The Ukrainians in the civil war in Spain in 1936-1939 years

  • S. P. Donchenko Dniprovsk state technical university
Keywords: civil war in Spain in 1936-1939, Ukrainian volunteers in Spain, troop after Taras Shevchenko, personal participation of Ukrainians in the war, internationalists


Civil war in Spain took place in 1936-1939. This war between Republican government and fascist forces was headed by general Franko. Soviet Union supported the Republican communist government. Soviet military consultants, military equipment and food were deployed to Spain. There were quite a lot of Ukrainians among the military people there. Some of them got the rank of Soviet Union Heroes and were awarded with orders and medals.Participation of the Ukrainians has been investigated by such scientists as: S.М. Akichev, І. Holod, L. М. Pasichnyk, М. М. Chasnytsky, А. Yakubov and others.Spanish military professionals were also trained in Ukraine. The weapon, made by the Ukrainian workers, and food, collected by the Ukrainian peasants, was sent to Spain through the ports of Ukraine.Ukrainians fought on both sides of front. Ukrainian emigrants stood on the side of Franko. Some of western Ukrainians and Soviet volunteers supported the government. Today it is sometimes difficult to identify Ukrainians by the last name as all natives from Soviet Union during the Spanish war wrote their nationality as «russo», i.e. Russians.Soldiers, commanders, political officers of the Ukrainian origin fought in the international brigades named after Dombrovsky, Chapaiev, Lincoln and others.The troop named after Taras Shevchenko also fought in Spain. Three commanders had changed during the war and, in the end, they all died, but the task was completed. Yurij Dmytrovych Velikanovych, Vasyl Lozovy, Nazar Demianchuk, Stanislav Тomashevych, Josyp Коnovaliuk, Valentine Pavlusevych, Josyp Petrash, Pavlo Ivanovich and Mykhajlo Lytvyn, Semen and Polikarp Raievsky, Voropaiev, soldiers Мyziurko, Leonchuk, Y. Hashek, Stahura, М. Husarov and many others battled in this troop. Semen Yakovych Poberzhnyk became the soldier of the 12-th International brigade under the command of general Lukach. General H. Кulyk, born in Poltava, future marshal of Soviet Union, was a military adviser of Junta Chairman of Madrid defense under a pseudonym Cuper. Inhabitant of Odesa, R. Malinovsky (future marshal of the Soviet Union) participated actively in the creation of regular army for organization of rebuff against the fascists under the pseudonym Маlino. Military experience of Chernihiv native V. Antonov-Ovsiienko (1936-1937 consul-general of the USSR in Barcelona) was very useful there. Resident of Kiev, journalist М. Коltsov, became famous by his reporting about military operations in Spain.The volunteers of Kyiv military region: V. Bocharov, І. Dushkin, І. Yevseiev, І. Proskurov, P.Ruchahov, S.Tarhov, B.Turzhansky, М.Shmeliov got a rank of Soviet Union Heroes for their deeds; V. Butyrsky, І. Zuiev, P.Burdeiny, Y. Kondrat, О. Оsadchy and others were awarded by orders.For today we know the names of 54 fallen Ukrainians. But it is unknown, how many went missing, how many remained in Spain, how many migrated to other countries of Europe and America.The conclusion can be made that this is a largely unexplored topic and it requires the detailed study of literature and other sources.


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How to Cite
Donchenko, S. P. (2017). The Ukrainians in the civil war in Spain in 1936-1939 years. Grani, 20(6), 87-92.