The problem of Indonesia’s leadership in ASEAN political and security cooperation
AbstractThe study is dedicated to modern approaches and policy of the Republic of Indonesia toward the process of regional integration in Southeast Asia. Key aspects and instruments of Indonesia’s increasing contribution in strengthening of the political and security cooperation between members of ASEAN have been explained by the researcher. The aim of the article is to identify the role of Indonesia in conduction of multilateral diplomacy within the framework of ASEAN political and security sphere, forms of its implementation as well as the specifics of limiting factors for such leadership. It has been argued by the author that Indonesia’s commitments to ASEAN and its desire to promote or inhibit the process of regional integration vary depending on policy areas and level of compliance to its national interests. Consequently, Indonesia’s main interests and priorities concerning the ASEAN integration process lie in security and defense sphere. Indonesia’s key role in building of the ASEAN Political and Security Community is to provide ideas and political concepts as well as to shape the regional agenda. Therefore, the country implements the relevant agreements and puts forward a number of regional initiatives in foreign policy and defense. Moreover, assuming the fact that direct regional mechanisms of conflict resolution has not been fully implemented yet, Jakarta works on its development, acting as a mediator and a reliable regional partner. In addition, it is worth to underline that Jakarta makes substantial contribution to regional efforts in counterterrorism. The benefit of this study is that it takes into consideration the specifics of the factors that reveal the limitations for leadership in the security sphere. The core principles of ASEAN functioning determine the degree and nature of Member States’ leadership in the region. The material power resources and implementation on power through coercion gave way to soft instruments of regional leadership, such as agenda-setting, mediation and innovation. Therefore, the nations’ leadership should be built on shared norms and values and could be effective only in case of corresponding common interests and purposes of other Member States. As a result, there is no evidence to suppose that ASEAN can lose its importance for Indonesia as this vector is still considered as a center of security architecture in Southeast Asia and main instrument for maintaining of the regional stability by the authority of the country. Moreover, it is also a precondition for the approval of Indonesia’s leadership and the implementation of its policy in other multilateral structures of cooperation by means of new diplomatic methods.
ASEAN. (2004, November 29). Vientiane Action Programme. Retrieved from http://www.asean.org/storage/images/archive/VAP-10th%20ASEAN%20Summit.pdf
ASEAN. (2012, July 20). ASEAN’s Six-Point Principles on the South China Sea. Statement of the ASEAN Foreign Ministers. Retrieved from http://www.cfr.org/asia-and-pacific/ aseans-six-point-principles-south-china-sea/p28915
ASEAN. (2012, May 11). Declaration of ASEAN Concord II (Bali Concord II). Retrieved from http://asean.org/?static_post=declaration-of-asean-concord-ii-bali-concord-ii
ASEAN. (2012, November 22). ASEAN Defence Ministers reflect on way forward in 2013. ASEAN Secretariat News. Retrieved from http://asean.org/asean-defence-ministers-reflect-on-way-forward-for-2013/
Caballero-Anthony, M. (2010). Non-Traditional Security Challenges, Regional Governance and the ASEAN Political-Security Community. Asia Security Initiative Policy Series: Working Paper, 7.
Dibb, P. (2001). Indonesia: The Key to South-East Asia’s Security. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs), 77(4), 829-842.
Emmers, R. (2009). Comprehensive Security and Resilience in Southeast Asia: ASEAN’s Approach to Terrorism. The Pacific Review, 22(2), 159–77.
Emmers, R. (2014). Indonesia’s Role in ASEAN: A Case of Incomplete and Sectorial Leadership. The Pacific Review, 27(4), 543-65.
Heiduk, F. (2016). Indonesia in ASEAN. Regional Leadership between Ambition and Ambiguity. SWP Research Paper, RP 6. Berlin: Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik.
Laksmana, E. (2012). Regional Order by Other Means? Examining the Rise of Defense Diplomacy in Southeast Asia. Asian Security, 8(3), 251-270.
Marsudi, R. (2014, November 17). Discourse: RI Now Has Firm Foreign Policy Standpoint, Says Retno. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved from http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/ 2014/11/17/discourse-ri-now-has-firm-foreign-policy-standpoint-says-retno.html.
Moad, I. (2013). ASEAN Counter-Terrorism Cooperation. Asian Defence Journal, 6–8.
Moniaga, R. (2015). Indonesia’s Past, Present and Future Power, Image and Foreign Policy. Paper prepared for the ISA Global South Caucus Conference.
Natalegawa, M. M. (2011, January 7). Annual Press Statement of the Foreign Minister of the Republic of Indonesia. Retrieved from http://indonesia.gr/speech-of-the-minister-of-foreign-affairsannual-press-statement-of-the-foreign-minister-of-the-republic-of-indonesia-dr-r-m-marty-m-natalegawa/.
Poole, A. (2015). The Foreign Policy Nexus: National Interests, Political Values and Identity. In C. Roberts, A. Habir & L. Sebastian (Eds.), Indonesia’s Ascent. Power, Leadership, and the Regional Order. Critical Studies of the Asia Pacific Series (pp. 155-176). L.: Palgrave Macmillan.
Putra, B. A. (2015). Indonesia’s Leadership Role in ASEAN: History and Future Prospects. International E-Journal of Advances in Social Sciences, 1(2), 188-197.
Sebastian, L. (2013). Indonesia’s Dynamic Equilibrium and ASEAN Centrality. RSIS Indonesia Programme.
Sukma, R. (2009, 30 June). Indonesia Needs a Post-ASEAN Foreign Policy. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved from http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2009/06/30/indonesia-needs-a-postasean -foreign-policy.html
Sukma, R. (2011). Do New Democracies Support Democracy? Indonesia Finds a New Voice. Journal of Democracy, 22(4), 110–23.
Vatikiotis, M. (2011, November 18). Indonesia Ends Its Turn at the Helm with a Stronger and More Secure ASEAN. The Jakarta Globe. Retrieved from http://thejakarta globe.beritasatu.com /archive/indonesia-ends-its-turn-at-the-helm-with-a-stronger-and-more-secure-asean/.
Wanandi, J. (2008, May 15). Indonesia’s Foreign Policy and the Meaning of ASEAN. PacNet, 27. Honolulu: Pacific Forum CSIS.
Widyaningsih, E. & Roberts, C. (2014). Indonesia in ASEAN: Mediation, leadership, and extra-mural diplomacy. National Security College Issue Brief. Australian National University, 13, 105-116.
Yudhoyono, S. B. (2009). Indonesia: Regional Role, Global Reach. Speech at the London School of Economics and Political Science.