Features of the religious modernization in Australia in the sociological reflection
AbstractThe article is devoted to the problem of the sociological reflection of the modernization features in the society of Australia, described in English-language sources on the sociology of modernization and secularization. It has been concluded by the author that the classical confessional «free market» found its full expression in America in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, but it existed from the very foundation of the United States, under the guise of more radical alternatives generated by the Enlightenment: deism, skepticism, secularism. In the second half of the twentieth century, it were these «religious opportunities» that prevailed in England and on the continent. This is more relevant to Australia, however, Canada and the United States are also not protected from these impacts.In today’s Australia, practices of non-teaching and non-practice is the most common choice, which denies social stigma, and is, perhaps, more often chosen by young people. Pluralism goes beyond the assumptions of supply theory, but the theory of secularization must take into account all these aspects of pluralism. However, there is one dimension of the religious situation in Australia, to which the supply theory could be applied. It is the steady growth of Pentecostal and Mormon groups over the past 15-20 years during which the main Protestant groups have decreased. As it is known, both religions show numerous features of «strictness» in contrast to Protestants’ main religious directions. Both flourished in a more open market, which emerged as a result of the collapse of Catholic and Anglican institutions. They successfully compete with other faiths to get a share of religious demand (although not stable, but limited and one that tends to steadily decrease). According to church studies, although these organizations recruit proselytes predominantly from people without a higher or even completed secondary education, most of those, who joined earlier, were members of other denominations, mostly Protestants. Together these two groups make up 1.3% of the population. On the other hand, they do not significantly restrain the exit from denominations and the transition of the majority of the population to atheism.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Canberra: ABS., 2001.
Casanova, José, 1996. Public Religions in the Modern World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bellah, Robert, 1970. «Religious evolution» in Beyond Belief. New York: Harper and Row.
Bellamy, John, Alan Black, Keith Castle, Philip Hughes and Peter Kaldor, 2002. Why People Don’t Go To Church. Adelaide: Openbook and NCLS Research.
Berger, Peter L., 1969. The Sacred Canopy. New York: Doubleday Anchor.
Berger, Peter L., 1997. From secularity to world religions. The Christian Century, 4-8.
Berger, Peter L. (ed.), 1999. The Desecularization of the World. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.
Berger, Peter L., and Thomas Luckmann, 1967. The Social construction of reality: a treatise in the sociology of knowledge. New York: Doubleday Anchor.
Bruce, Steve. (ed.), 1992. Religion and Modernization: Sociologists and Historians Debate the Secularization Thesis. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Carlin, David R., 1997. «The denomination called Catholic.» First Things November, 18-21.
Duncan, Bruce Crusade or Conspiracy? Catholics and the Anti-Communist Struggle in Australia. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 2001.
Eisenstadt, S. N., 2000. «Multiple modernities» Daedalus 129/1 (Winter).
Gallagher, Michael Paul., 1990. Struggles of faith: essays. Dublin: Columba Press.
Geertz, Clifford, 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic.
James, William, 1973. The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature. New York: Macmillan.
Ladurie, Le Roy Emmanuel, 1978. Montaillou: Cathars and Catholics in a French Village, 1294-1324. Scholar’s Press.
Lechner, Frank J., 1989. «Catholicism and social change in the Netherlands: a case of radical secularization?» Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 28:136-47.
Lechner, Frank J., 1996. «Secularization in the Netherlands?» Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 35/3 (September), 252-265.
Lijphart, A., 1975. The politics of accommodation: pluralism and democracy in the Netherlands. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Luckmann, Thomas, 1977. «Theories of religion and social change.» Annual Review of the Social Sciences of Religion I.
Luckmann, Thomas, 1990. «Shrinking transcendence, expanding religion?» Sociological Analysis 50/2 (Summer), 139-152.
McLeod, Hugh, 2000. Secularization in Western Europe 1848-1914. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Martin, David, 1978. A General Theory of Secularization. Oxford: Blackwell.
Mol, Hans, 1971. Religion in Australia. Melbourne: Nelson.
Mol, Hans, 1985. The Faith of Australians. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.