The second higher education and additional education as factors of development of commercialization in Ukrainian higher education
AbstractThe attention in the article has been drawn to the nature and characteristics of commercialization in the higher education system of Ukraine. It has been noted that commercialization in the consumer society is a social process of transformation of knowledge into a product or service. It provides the growing influence of market relations on the goals and objectives of higher education, promotes the growing importance of knowledge as a source for economic development and focuses on the concept of rooting and academic capitalism and the creation of market-oriented and entrepreneurial universities, which provide dynamic development of economy based on knowledge. Defining the essence of the Ukrainian forms of commercialization, there is a significant role of further and second higher education (that is, the presence of a variety of educational forms, which allows the University receiving the profit in the monetary form). The model of commercialization, which is implemented in Ukrainian higher education, differs from the American and Western European ones, as it is focused on financial returns, not on the economization of intellectual profit. Secondly, a peculiar type of consumer behavior, consumerism, which provides growth of profitability of higher education institutions by a variety of additional services (training, additional courses, further education, developing classes, retaking tests, etc.). The factors of development and dynamics of the Ukrainian forms of commercialization, as well as recommendations for avoiding the negative consequences of the economization and commercialization in higher education structure of modern Ukraine have been considered in the article. It has been noted that the University lost its original purpose and became a huge supermarket, which offers various kinds of knowledge. Rational action considers in the desire to buy the most qualitative product – a diploma from a prestigious University. Nowadays, the higher education system doesn’t see the student as the heir of the specific epistemological tradition of knowledge, who joins many generations of scientists, but rather as a consumer of educational services, and this is the essence of the manifestation of McDonaldization. Attention is focused on that rather unfavorable socioeconomic situation of the country which causes a number of problems in the educational sphere. Educational action should be aimed at the increase of the level of public funding, creation of necessary conditions for attraction of extra-budgetary funds, the allocation of information support, formation of a transparent system of monitoring of the education’s quality.
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