Alienation and the project of man’s universal emancipation by early Marx
AbstractSources and backgrounds of the alienation concept formation in early Marxism have been considered. The concept of the alienation is analyzed in connection with the idea of man’s intrinsic forces and as the starting point of the universal emancipation’s project, which is considered to be a possibility of the free creative reproduction of the human being in all aspects of its development. The necessity of voiding and alienation overcoming has been studied being the major purpose of the social development, which saves its importance in the modern Neomarxism and also in the majority of left-orientated social-philosophical theories.It has been grounded that the problem of alienation, its causes and consequences, together with a problem on alienation overcoming, are crucial elements of the wider problem, which is connected with the creation of man’s emancipation project creation within the most aloof and alienated repressive social environment. The conflict and radical theory of the social development, which were created within the theory of Marxism, couldn’t confine the simple ascertaining of the fact of alienation. As a result the Marxism got the characteristic design of alienation’s removal in a context of the full relief of the person. While studying the alienation’s problem within the limits of Marxism, the whole bunch of problems merits special attention: correct representation of the alienation phenomenon in early Marxism, relation between the alienation and situations’ objection, alienation within the limits of an ideological superstructure.Attention accentuation is almost exclusive concerning social aspects of formation and consciousness existence theory within the limits of Marxism. This approach to a certain degree is not justified. But, anyway, the clear examination of thin facets and nuances of human individuality even till now day is quite difficult for a scientific method. It is extremely difficult to discover and feature laws of development of individual distinctions, it is much more productive to try to reduce these distinctions to some terminating panel of performances. This path is usually used by sciences while featuring the objects and it works good in the field of biology and others with known allowances and approaches for exposition of statistical objects. But it is absolutely unsuitable in situations, where we deal with single instances and with one-stage subjective acts, how it happens during the normal life. Marx already in his early works reinterprets the concept of alienation, gave it not only economic or sociopolitical, but also the existential content. This circumstance also allows using it more widely now as the given concept is the basic index of person’s place in social systems.The suggested problem is rather actual for domestic philosophy, especially regarding the reflection on social, economic and political realities and it can form a bottom for the further researches.
Gegel’, G.V.F., 1992. Fenomenologiya duha [Phenomenology of the spirit]. SPb: Nauka, 444 (in Russian)
ZHelezov, E.A., 1989. Sushchnostnye sily cheloveka: filosofsko-mirovozzrencheskij harakter [Essential forces of man: philosophical and philosophical nature]. Kazan’, 246 (in Russian)
Zinov’eva, D.M., 2005. Psihologiya otchuzhdeniya [Psychology of alienation]. Volgograd: Izd-vo GOU VPO «VAGS», 172 (in Russian)
Marks, K., 1956. Iz rannih proizvedenij [From early works]. M.: Gospolitizdat, 690 (in Russian)
Prozumentik, K.V. Sushchnostnye sily cheloveka: struktura i urovni [Essential forces of man: structure and levels]. Access mode: https://www.hse.ru/data/2013/03/20/.../Prozumentik%20Stat’ya%20VAK (in Russian)
Fromm, EH., 1998. Begstvo ot svobody. CHelovek dlya sebya [Escape from freedom. Man for himself]. Minsk: OOO «Popurri», 356 (in Russian)
Martineau, J., 2015. Time, Capitalism and Alienation. A Socio-Historical Inquiry into the Making of Modern Time. Leiden-Boston, Brill, 179 p. (in English).
Meszaros, I., 2006. Marx’s Theory of Alienation. London, 352 p. (in English).
Ollman, B., 2001. Alienation. Marx’s Conception of Man in a Capitalist Society. Cambridge, University Press, 339 p. (in English).
Wendling, A., 2009. Karl Marx on Technology and Alienation. A. Wendling. NY, Macmillan, 252 p. (in English).