French Military Strategy of the End of XIX – First Half of XX Centuries: between Descartes and Bergson?

  • Y. O. Loboda University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Keywords: strategic epistemology, H.Bergson, R.Descartes, war, war studies, strategic culture, intelligence

Abstract

Was observed the issue of correlation of tradition of philosophic research in France on the end of the 19 century – first half of 20 century with particularities of elaboration and realization of national military doctrines, which were the basic plans of preparation for the both world wars. Were establishes parallels between intuitivism of Bergson, rationalism of Descartes and plans of the French supreme command, which failed during the world wars of the 20 century. Was concluded that given correlations do not have essential personal character; more fundamental influences on the strategic culture should be searched in the ways of cognition, which have been basic for philosophy during all her history, which is intended to be realized in discipline «strategic epistemology».

References

Alexander, M.S., 1992. The Republic in Danger. General Maurice Gamelin and the Politics of French Defence, 1933-1940. - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 587 p.

Annales Bergsoniennes, V., 2012. Bergson, et la Politique: De Jaurès à Aujourd’hui / Rédacteurs: A. François et C. Riquier. - Paris: Presses Universitaires de France

Annales Bergsoniennes VII. Bergson, L’allemagne, la Guerre de 1914 / Rédacteurs: A. François et C. Riquier. - Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2014.

Benda, J., 2007. The Treason of the Intellectuals. - New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 276 p.

Benda, J., 2007. The Treason of the Intellectuals. - New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 276 p.

Bergson, H., 1959. Écrits et Paroles. Tome Troisième. - Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 223 p.

Bergson, H., 1915. The Meaning of War. Life and Matter in Conflict. – London: T. Fisher Unwin LTD, 47 p.

Bidou, H., 1919. Le Maréchal Joffre a l’Académie Française // Revue des Deux Mondes. LXXXIXe Année. Sixième Période. Tome Quarante-Neuvième. – Paris: Bureau de la Revue des Deux Mondes, 226-230.

Boucher, A., 1906. L’Armée Idéale. – Paris: Henri Charles-Lavauzelle, Éditeur Militaire, 314 p.

Canales, J., 2015. The Physicist and the Philosopher: Einstein, Bergson, and the Debate that Changed our Understanding of Time. – Princeton, Oxford: Princeton University Press, 489 p.

Carrias, E., 1960. La Pensée Militaire Française. – Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 378 p.

Charles De Gaulle: La Jeunesse et la Guerre 1890-1920. Colloque International Organisé par la Fondation Charles De Gaulle, Lille, 5-6 Novembre 1999. - Paris: Plon, 2001.

Cohen, E.A., Gooch, J., 1990. Military Misfortunes. The Anatomy of Failure in War. – New York: The Free Press, London: Collier Macmillan Publishers, 304 p.

De Gaulle Ch. La France et son Armée. – Paris: Plon, 1938. – 279 p.

De Gaulle Ch. Le Fil de l’Épée // De Gaulle Ch. Le Fil de L’épée et Autres Écrits. – Paris: Plon, 1994. – Pp. 143-230.

Doughty, R.A., 1985. The Seeds of Disaster: The Development of French Army Doctrine 1919-1939. - Hamden, CT: The Shoe String Press, Inc., 243 p.

Edmonds, J.E., 1937. History of the Great War, Based on Official Documents by Direction of the Historical Section of the Committee of Imperial Defence. Military Operations France and Belgium, 1914. Mons, the Retreat to the Seine, the Marne and the Aisne, August-October 1914. - London: Macmillan and Co., Limited, 622 p.

Folard de, J.-Ch. Histoire d’Épaminondas pour Servir de Suite aux Hommes Illustres de Plutarque, avec des Remarques de M. le Chevalier de Folard sur les principales batailles d’Épaminondas. – Paris: Didot, 1752. – 496 p.

Gamelin, M., 1947. Servir. La Guerre (Septembre 1939 - 19 Mai 1940). Paris: Librairie Plon, 537 p.

Gamelin, M., 1946. Servir. Les Armées Françaises de 1940. Paris: Librairie Plon, 401 p.

Gamelin, M., 1946. Servir. Prologue du Drame (1930 - Août 1939). Paris: Librairie Plon, 511 p.

Gascouin, F., 1931. Le Triomphe de l’Idée. 1914. - Paris: Berger-Levrault, Éditeurs, 263 p.

Gat A. A History of Military Thought from the Enlightenment to the Cold War. – Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. – 890 p.

Gorce De La, P.-M. The French Army: A Military-Political History. - New York: George Braziller, 1963. – 574 p.

Grogin, R.C., 1988. The Bergsonian Controversy in France 1900 – 1914. – Calgary: The University of Calgary Press, 232 p.

Hanks, R. K., 2005. Bergson, Henri (1859-1941) // World War I: Encyclopedia. Volume I: A-D / Ed. by S. C. Tucker. - Santa Barbara CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 201-202.

Hanna, M., 1996. The Mobilization of Intellect. French Scholars and Writers during the Great War. – Cambridge MA, London: Harvard University Press, 302 p.

Hourticq, R., 1908. Leçons de Logique et de Morale. Classes de Philosophie et de Mathématiques, Préparation à Saint-Cyr, à L’école Navale et à L’ecole Polytechnique. - Paris: Ancienne Librairie Henry Paulin & Cie, Prieur & Cie Éditeurs, 322 p.

Janet, P., 2006. Philosophie et Psychologie (1896). – Paris: L’Harmattan, 445 p.

Kennett, L., 1972. The A.E.F. [Allied Expeditionary Forces] Through French Eyes // Military Review. – Pp. 3-11 / http://cgsc.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p124201coll1/id/566/rec/2

Kiesling, E.C., 2013. Castex, Vice Admiral Raoul Victor Patrice (1878 - 1968) // Philosophers of War. The Evolution Of History’s Greatest Military Thinkers. Volume 2: The Modern World, 1815 – Present / Ed. by D. Coetzee and L.W. Eysturlid. - Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, LLC., 120-125.

Kiesling, E.C., 1994. Introduction // Castex R. Strategic Theories. Annapolis MD: Naval Institute Press, I-XLIV.

Lalande, A., 1907. Lectures sur la Philosophie des Sciences. Classes de Mathématiques. Nouvelle Édition Revue et Augmentée Conformément aux Programmes d’Admission a l’École Polytechnique et a l’École de Saint-Cyr. – Paris: Librairie Hachette Et Cie, 391 p.

Lambelet, A.J., 2002. A Reluctant Reconciliation: Army Officers, Conscription, and Democratic Citizenship in the French Third Republic, 1870-1940 / A Dissertation Submitted in Partial Satisfaction of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor in Philosophy in History in the Graduate Division of the University of California, Berkeley, Fall 2001. - Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest Information and Learning Company, 348 p.

Larcan, A., 1993. Charles De Gaulle: Itinéraires Intellectuels et Spirituels. - Nancy: Presses Universitaires de Nancy, 550 p.

Larcan, A., 1993. Charles De Gaulle: Itinéraires Intellectuels et Spirituels. - Nancy: Presses Universitaires de Nancy, 550 p.

Mayer, É., 1921. La Guerre d’Hier et l’Armée de Demain. - Paris: Librairie Garnier Freres, 214 p.

Mayer, É., 1930. Nos Chefs de 1914. - Paris: Librairie Stock Delamain et Boutelleau, 317 p.

Mayer, É., 1923. Théorié de la•Gùerre et l’Etude de l’Art Militaire. - Paris: Librairie Félix Alcan, 217 p.

Mayer, É., 1928. Trois Maréchaux. Joffre, Galliéni, Foch. - Paris: Librairie Gallimard, 231 p.

Mesnil-Durand de, F.-J., 1774. Fragments de tactique, ou six mémoires... précédés d’un Discours Préliminaire sur la Tactique et sur les Systèmes. – Paris: Ch.-Ant. Ambert, 422 p.

Mysyrowicz, L., 1973. Autopsie D’Une Défaite. Origines de l’effondrement militaire français de 1940. – Lausanne: L’Age D’Homme, 385 p.

Nichols, R., 1978. Treason, Tradition, and the Intellectual. Julien Benda and Political Discourse. - Lawrence: The Regents Press of Kansas, 280 p.

Niess, R.J., 1956. Julien Benda. - Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 375 p.

Perrier De La Bâthie. De Descartes au Général X... – Paris: Charles-Lavauzelle &. Cib., 1926. – 235 p.

Pierrefeu de, J., 1924. Plutarch Lied. – New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 316 p.

Poincaré, R., 1928. Au Service de la France. Neuf Années de Souvenirs, Tome V. L’Invasion 1914. - Paris: Plon, 543 p.

Porch, D., 1988. The French Army in the First World War // Military Effectiveness. Volume I: The First World War / Ed. by A. R. Millett, W. Murray. - Boston: Allen & Unwin, 190-228.

Porch, D., 1995. The French Secret Services. From the Dreyfus Affair to the Gulf War. - New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 638 p.

Puységur de, J.F. Ch. Art de la guerre, par principes et par règles. Partie I. – Paris: Charles-Antoine Jombert, 1748. – 196 p.

Soulez, Ph., 1989. Bergson Politique. – Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 409 p.

Soulez, Ph., 1989. Bergson Politique. – Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 409 p.

Tuchman, B. W., 1989. The Guns of August. – New York: Bantam Books, 1989. – 575 p.

Valéry, P., 1959. Cahiers. Tome Seizième. 1932-1933. - Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 909 p.

Voeltz, R.A., 1996. Bergson, Henri (1859-1941) // European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia / Ed. by S. C. Tucker. - New York, London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 124.

Wheeler, W.T., Korb, L.J., 2007. Military Reform. A Reference Handbook. - Westport: Praeger Security International, 254 p.

Published
2017-03-23
How to Cite
Loboda, Y. O. (2017). French Military Strategy of the End of XIX – First Half of XX Centuries: between Descartes and Bergson?. Scientific and Theoretical Almanac Grani, 20(1), 74-80. https://doi.org/10.15421/171712
Section
Article