The conceptual features of the definition of «Left» and «Right» political parties in conditions of the post-industrial society
AbstractOne of the most widespread and the most versatile methods of structuring of the political field, which is used usually both in political science research, and in print media discourse is the concept of «Left-Right» party-ideological distinction. However, the «Left-Right» semantics is characterized by the instability of basic concepts: they are constantly changing, gaining new features and content, depending on this or that socio-political context or, even, political traditions prevailing in a particular region. Therefore, its entry and the final consolidation in political science discourse gave the impetus to the long scientific debate regarding the specific conceptualization of the indicated distinction and its cognitive potential, especially in conditions of formation of the «new policy» of the post-industrial society. So this caused the necessity to determine the theoretical and methodological strategy of the identification of «Left» and «Right» political parties in the new economic, political and sociocultural reality of the post-industrial society. According to this, it has been revealed in the article that at the present stage of social and political evolution, in conditions of transition of advanced industrialized nations at the post-industrial stage of development, the traditional understanding of the «Left-Right» distinction is changing into the form of one-dimensional linear division. It has been grounded, that in such circumstances the definition of «Left» and «Right» political parties requires adherence to methodological principles of pluralization theory on the coexistence of traditional and new definitions of the Lefts and Rights, which do not displace each other from political discourse, but only become more or less significant in the context of a specific socio-political and economic situation. As soon as there are new social conflicts or old one are updated, the processes of transformation of the semantic content of «Left» and «Right» concepts launch immediately, and this results to the adaptation to new conditions. It has been proved that mentioned division becomes a two-dimensional orthogonal structure, in which one axis represents the traditional distinction based on the materialist (economic) issues, and another, the new one, is based on post-materialist (sociocultural) issues. Under such two-dimensional structure «Left-Right» political forces positioning is made: focusing on economic issues for one conditions and on sociocultural ones in other cases.
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