Structural elements of ancient armies of Northern Black Sea Region: ethnic, social and functional peculiarities
AbstractThis article deal with the description, analysis and generalization of features organization of command structure of the army ancient states of the Northern Black Sea region: Olbia, Chersonese, Bosporus. Author sure that the foundation of the armed forces of these states was a civil militia – free, economically independent landowners, endowed with the broadest volume of political and social rights men – full citizens. Accordingly, the assemblies of citizens were electing strategists, who led militia forces. In case of need the people also claimed commanders’ mercenary troops. Bosporus kings have attracted a significant number of hired troops that held by the royal treasury income and special direct tax. Some structural elements of ancient armies had different ethnic origin and could specialize in different types of weapons. For example, the Scythians mainly famous as archers (bowmen, “toxots”), Sarmatians – heavy horsemen (“cataphractarii”), the Celts – shield-holders and swordsman (“thyureoforoi”) etc. Representatives of the Bosporus aristocratic families, who served in the army, came from Hellenic and barbarian ethnic groups. For example, in the Roman period on the Bosporus fixed formation units of cathafractarian cavalry. The weapons and tactics of the Sarmatian nomadic nobility (Aspurhianian, Sirak, Aorsy and more) were served as a model for Bosporus cataphractarian horsemen. Among the military allies of the ancient states of the Northern Black Sea region were leaders of local tribes, the barbarian lords of neighboring countries and the powerful monarchs of Pontus and Rome.
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