Genesis and formation attribute of military authorities of the Ukrainian сossacks in the XVI – XVIII centuries
AbstractHere are considered the historical roots of formation and genesis of bunchuks as a part of the whole kleinod complex of Kosh Otamans and Hetmans of the Ukrainian Cossacks. Turkic lexeme «bunchuk» over time has transformed into modern term that is common in Ukrainian culture. Traditionally, the first recorded case of bunchuks’ use by military is associated with the name of the Arab Caliph Abu Bakr and his military battles on the territory of Syria in the 7th century. During the active cross-cultural contacts in the early 13th century, firstly bunchuks became known among the Mongols and later among the Turks. Early Ottomans used them not only as a military sign, but also as a ranking marker of the court official, status present, which raised the social status of a person. From Turks bunchuks were taken by the representatives of the Commonwealth of Poland and at the beginning gave them a meaning of the important symbol of Quarter Army Hetman military power and later, from the middle of the XVII century, of the Polish king. Historical tradition linked the use of bunchuks by Ukrainian Cossacks with the military reforms of Polish monarch Stefan Batory. But modern scientists, studying military history of the Cossacks in the first quarter of the XVII century and using the materials of Polish archives denied this statement and stressed the attention of the Turkish-Tatar vector. For Zaporozhian Cossacks bunchuks were among the attributes of legitimacy or legality of certain actions. In the external design dominated red and black color schemes. National Symbols of early modern Ukrainian state in the middle of the 17th – 18th c., which basis was formed of the attributes of power Zaporozhian Cossacks, recorded bunchuks as personal banners of Hetmans. In order to make the distinction from Zaporozhian Cossacks, Hetmans started using white bunchuks. Historical records kept information about these signs is in the arsenal of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Petro Doroshenko, Ivan Mazepa and Kyrylo Rozumovsky. To the bunchuk of Acting Hetman there were added two silver racemes. It was this sign, under which the Cossack state leaders received military parades, met foreign ambassadors, maintained foreign negotiations. During the election of a new Hetman, on the same level with the mace, bunchuks were attribute of legitimacy of the election of a person to the position of a leader of the Ukrainian state. In case of Hetman’s death, in accordance with Moscow Articles of the year 1665, bunchuks packed in special boxes were sent to the Russian warlord in Kyiv, who passed them to the Armory in the Moscow Kremlin.
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