The provincial administration of the Ottoman Empire in the XVI century on the ground of the kanunname

  • M. V. Kovalchuk Taras Shevchenko national university of Kyiv
Keywords: the provincial organization, territory, eyalet, beylerbey, sanjakbey, power branches

Abstract

The title of the article is ‘The provincial administration of the Ottoman empire in the XVI century on the ground of the kanunname’. The purpose of the article is to characterize the structure of the provincial administration of the Ottoman Empire in the XVI century on the ground of the sultans’ kanunname. The administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire has been studied in the article: the largest ottoman provinces - eyalets were divided into two types: timarli, in which the system of sanjaks, ottoman law, timar system were established; and salyaneli, where timar system was absent, all taxes were gathered and distributed to local needs; the second administrative-military territorial units were sanjaks, the subdivisions of sanjak were kazas and kadiluks, then – nahiyes. Moreover, outside this system there were various types of vassal and tributary states. The governance of such large territory, control over the execution of orders, establishment of relations between different groups of multi-ethnic population of the empire, which lived mostly not in the metropolitan area, but in the provinces, needed the constant functioning of local authorities. The main task of the provincial administration was to organize and to strengthen the communications between the province and the center. Special attention has been given to the description of the place and role, rights and duties of beylerbey, sanjakbey, qadi (judge), defterdar and other local managers at the system of the Ottoman provincial administration. In conclusion it is necessary to point out that the system of local authorities was formed by representatives of the military-administrative (sipahi-timarli, sanjakbey, beylerbey, the Grand Vizier), judicial (qadis (judges), kazaskers, sheikh-ul-Islam) and financial (defterdars) branches of the Ottoman government. Legal prohibitions and mutual cooperation supported sustainable balance between these executive power branches.

References

Gasratjan, M.A., 1983. Ocherki istorii Turcii [Essays on the history of Turkey]. M.A. Gasratjan, S.F. Oreshkova, Ju.A. Petrosjan (eds.). Nauka, Moscow. [in Russian]

Zakonopolozhenie vilajeta Gelibolu [Kanunname of the Gelibolu vilayet]. Agrarnyj stroj Osmanskoj imperii XV-XVII vv.: dokumenty i materialy [The agricultural system of the Ottoman Empire in the XVth-XVIIth centuries: documents and materials]. A. S. Tveritinova (ed.). Izd-vo vostochnoj lit-ry, Moskow. 81–89. [in Russian]

Zakonopolozhenie vilajeta Karaman [Kanunname of the Karaman vilayet]. Agrarnyj stroj Osmanskoj imperii XV-XVII vv.: dokumenty i materialy [The agricultural system of the Ottoman Empire in the XVth-XVIIth centuries: documents and materials]. A. S. Tveritinova (ed.). Izd-vo vostochnoj lit-ry, Moskow. 56–60. [in Russian]

Zakonopolozhenie livy Ajdyn [Kanunname of Aidyn liva]. Agrarnyj stroj Osmanskoj imperii XV-XVII vv: dokumenty i materialy [The agricultural system of the Ottoman Empire in the XVth-XVIIth centuries: documents and materials]. A. S. Tveritinova (ed.). Izd-vo vostochnoj lit-ry, Moskow. 1963. 44–55. [in Russian]

Zakonopolozhenie livy Mosul [Kanunname of Mosul liva]. Agrarnyj stroj Osmanskoj imperii XV-XVII vv.: dokumenty i materialy [The agricultural system of the Ottoman Empire in the XVth-XVIIth centuries: documents and materials]. A. S. Tveritinova (ed.). Izd-vo vostochnoj lit-ry, Moskow. 1963. 63–69. [in Russian]

Zakonopolozhenie livy Ohri (Ohrida) [Kanunname of Ohri liva] // Agrarnyj stroj Osmanskoj imperii XV-XVII vv.: dokumenty i materially. [The agricultural system of the Ottoman Empire in the XVth-XVIIth centuries: documents and materials] A. S. Tveritinova (ed.). Izd-vo vostochnoj lit-ry, Moskow. 1963. 87–91. [in Russian]

Zakonopolozhenie livy Hudavendigjar [Kanunname of Hüdavendigâr liva]. Agrarnyj stroj Osmanskoj imperii XV-XVII vv: dokumenty i materialy [The agricultural system of the Ottoman Empire in the XVth-XVIIth centuries: documents and materials]. A. S. Tveritinova (ed.). Izd-vo vostochnoj lit-ry, Moskow. 1963. 38–43. [in Russian]

Kanun-name vilajeta Jerzurum [Kanunname of the Erzurum vilayet]. Armenija v pervoj polovine XVI v. [Armenia in the first half of the XVIth century]. Glavnaja redakcija vostochnoj literatury, Moskow. 1971. 99–117. [in Russian]

Іnaldzhik H., 1998. Osmans’ka іmperіja. Klasichna doba 1300-1600 [The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age 1300-1600]. Per. z angl. O.Galenka; Іn-t shodoznavstva іm. A. Krims’kogo NAN Ukraїni. Kritika, Kyiv. [in Ukrainian]

Inalcik H., 1954. Ottoman methods of conquest. Studia islamica. Princeton. 103–129. [in English]

Istorija Osmanskogo gosudarstva, obshhestva i civilizacii [History of the Ottoman state, society and civilization], 2006. V 2 t. Je. Ihsanoglu (ed.). Vost. Lit., Moskow. T. 1: Istorija Osmanskogo gosudarstva i obshhestva. [in Russian]

Kniga zakonov sultana Sulejmana Kanuni [Kanunname of Suleyman Kanuni]. Agrarnyj stroj Osmanskoj imperii XV–XVII vv.: dokumenty i materialy [The agricultural system of the Ottoman Empire in the XVth-XVIIth centuries]. A. S. Tveritinova (ed.). Izd-vo vostochnoj lit-ry, Moskow. 1963. 22–37. [in Russian]

Mejer, M.S., 1980. K harakteristike pravjashhego klassa v Osmanskoj imperii XVI–XVII vv. (po dannym «Tereke defterleri») [On the characterization of the leading class in the Ottoman Empire in the XVI-XVIIth centuries]. Srednevekovyj Vostok. Istorija, kul’tura, istochnikovedenie. Moscow. 180-189. [in Russian]

Oreshkova, S., 1986. Gosudarstvennaja vlast’ i nekotorye problemy formirovanija social’noj struktury osmanskogo obshhestva [Governmental power and some issues of formation of the social structure of the Ottoman society]. Osmanskaja imperija: sistema gosudarstvennogo upravlenija, social’nye i jetnoreligioznye problemy. Moscow. 5-18. [in Russian]

Traktat Ali Chausha iz Sofii o timariotskoj organizacii v Osmanskoj imperii [Treatise of Ali Chaush from Sofia about the timar organization of the Ottoman Empire]. Agrarnyj stroj Osmanskoj imperii XV–XVII vv.: dokumenty i materially [The agricultural system of the Ottoman Empire in the XVth-XVIIth centuries]. A. S. Tveritinova (ed.). Izd-vo vostochnoj lit-ry, Moscow. 1963. 92–127. [in Russian]

Hadzhibegich, H. Tureckie pravovye pamjatniki kak istoricheskij istochnik [Turkish legal monuments as a historical source]. Vostochnye istochniki po istorii narodov Jugo-Vostochnoj i Central’noj Evropy. T. І. Izdatel’stvo «Nauka», Moscow. 1964. 67–75. [in Russian]

Barkey, K., 2005. Islam and Toleration: Studying the Ottoman Imperial Model. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society. 19. (1/2). The New Sociological Imagination II, 5–19. [in English]

Birken, A., 1976. Die Provinzen Des Osmanischen Reiches (Tubinger Atlas Des Vorderen Orients (The provinces of the Ottoman Empire).Wiesbaden. [in German]

Imber Colin, 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300–1650: the Structure of Power. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. [in English]

David, G., 2009. Provincial administration. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. G. Agoston, B. Masters (eds.). Facts on file, NY. 187–204. [in English]

Kołodziejczyk, D., 1994. Podole pod panowaniem tureckim. Ejalet Kamieniecki 1672-1699 [Podolia under the Turkish rule. Eyalet Kamieniecki 1672-1699]. Oficyna Wydawnicza POLCZEK Polskiego Czerwonego Krzyża, Warszawa. [in Polish]

Kunt, M., 1983. The Sultan’s Servants: The Transformation of Ottoman Provincial Government, 1550–1650. Columbia University Press, New York. [in English]

Ortaylı, І., 1994. Osmanlı Devleti’nde Kadı [Judge in the Ottoman Empire]. Ankara. [in Turkish]

Shaw Stanford, J., 1976. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Vol.1: Empire of the Gazis: the Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire, 1280-1808. Cambridge. [in English]

Uzuncarşılı, I., 1988. Osmanlı devleti teşkilatına medhal [Review of the Ottoman state organization]. TTKB, Ankara. [in Turkish]

Uzunçarşılı, I. H., 1998. Osmanlı Tarihi II. Cilt: İstanbul’un Fethinden Kanunî Sultan Süleyman’ın Ölümüne Kadar [History of the Ottoman Empire: from Mehmed Fatih to the death of Suleyman Kanuni]. Türk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara. [in Turkish]

Yılmaz, M.Ş., 2006. Koca Nişancı of Kanuni: Celalzade Mustafa Çelebi, Bureaucracy and «Kanun» in the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent (1520–1566). Ph.D. Dissertation. Bilkent University, Ankara. [in English]

Hadzhibegich, H. Tureckie pravovye pamjatniki kak istoricheskij istochnik [Turkish legal monuments as a historical source]. Vostochnye istochniki po istorii narodov Jugo-Vostochnoj i Central’noj Evropy. T. І. Izdatel’stvo «Nauka», Moscow. 1964. 67–75. [in Russian]

Barkey, K., 2005. Islam and Toleration: Studying the Ottoman Imperial Model. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society. 19. (1/2). The New Sociological Imagination II, 5–19. [in English]

Birken, A., 1976. Die Provinzen Des Osmanischen Reiches (Tubinger Atlas Des Vorderen Orients (The provinces of the Ottoman Empire).Wiesbaden. [in German]

Imber Colin, 2002. The Ottoman Empire, 1300–1650: the Structure of Power. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. [in English]

David, G., 2009. Provincial administration. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. G. Agoston, B. Masters (eds.). Facts on file, NY. 187–204. [in English]

Kołodziejczyk, D., 1994. Podole pod panowaniem tureckim. Ejalet Kamieniecki 1672-1699 [Podolia under the Turkish rule. Eyalet Kamieniecki 1672-1699]. Oficyna Wydawnicza POLCZEK Polskiego Czerwonego Krzyża, Warszawa. [in Polish]

Kunt, M., 1983. The Sultan’s Servants: The Transformation of Ottoman Provincial Government, 1550–1650. Columbia University Press, New York. [in English]

Ortaylı, І., 1994. Osmanlı Devleti’nde Kadı [Judge in the Ottoman Empire]. Ankara. [in Turkish]

Shaw Stanford, J., 1976. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Vol.1: Empire of the Gazis: the Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire, 1280-1808. Cambridge. [in English]

Uzuncarşılı, I., 1988. Osmanlı devleti teşkilatına medhal [Review of the Ottoman state organization]. TTKB, Ankara. [in Turkish]

Uzunçarşılı, I. H., 1998. Osmanlı Tarihi II. Cilt: İstanbul’un Fethinden Kanunî Sultan Süleyman’ın Ölümüne Kadar [History of the Ottoman Empire: from Mehmed Fatih to the death of Suleyman Kanuni]. Türk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara. [in Turkish]

Yılmaz, M.Ş., 2006. Koca Nişancı of Kanuni: Celalzade Mustafa Çelebi, Bureaucracy and «Kanun» in the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent (1520–1566). Ph.D. Dissertation. Bilkent University, Ankara. [in English]

Published
2016-11-05
How to Cite
Kovalchuk, M. V. (2016). The provincial administration of the Ottoman Empire in the XVI century on the ground of the kanunname. Grani, 19(12), 100-106. https://doi.org/10.15421/1716147
Section
Article