Socio-cultural factors of formation of musical preferences of Ukrainian students
AbstractThe impact of social and cultural factors on the musical preferences of students in Ukraine has been analysed in the article. The following factors have been selected: the type of society and social change in the polical fields of economy, culture, technology, students, musical paradigm. The urgency of the analysis of the genesis, development and change of musical preferences of students has been proven, the necessity to study the influence of sociocultural factors on the formation of musical preferences in modern society has been grounded. This allowed characterising the musical preferences as a socio-cultural phenomenon that present signs and society, and culture of the society. It has been found that the development of technology, such as the invention and use of the gramophone, phonograph, cinema, radio, television, and later a tape recorder, computer, Internet, mobile communications and the latest gadgets, has enhanced the formation of musical preferences.It has contributed meeting the needs and inquiries of students, which are studying musical art, the use of individual trajectories of formation of formal and informal musical preferences. Formal preferences are associated with the activities of social institutions and social organizations. In this context, the musical preferences and those recommended “from above” have been considered to be two different ways of formation of musical preferences in a totalitarian society. The variety of musical preferences has been determined. State-formed musical preferences have been identified and characterized by a second method of forming a musical preferences, which is based on the perception of diversity and is not approved by the musical culture of the individually selected samples, “from below” groups, which are defined as individual and personal, or informal, musical preferences. The musical preferences of students, related to situations of social changes that have occurred in the spheres of economy, politics, culture, have been analyzed. For example, during transformational years, musical preferences differed greatly due to the transitional nature of the necessity to choose between the old musical genres and intonations, and the new, which were not formed. As a result of the change of musical paradigm, the “withering away” genre of Soviet mass song disappeared and variety of Ukrainian song genres was created. The change in the role of students in the post-war period has been described. Students were the object of influence and became an active subject, which not only mastered the values and cultural patterns, but also became the founder of the youth culture and youth subcultures. Finally, the formation of the musical preferences of students in a transitional society has been described, which were characterized by the diversification of opportunities, first of all, by the access to information and communication technologies aimed at different musical forms, styles, genres. Such musical preferences have been defined as “pluralistic” or “mosaic, fragmentary”. As a result, the following conclusions have been formulated, which presented the results of sociological-historical changes of students’ musical preferences studies, caused by socio-cultural factors. The configuration of musical preferences in different types of societies has been shown. The results of empirical sociological studies of musical preferences have been presented. Factors that influenced their formation and changes have been described. The advantages of the use new information and communication technologies by modern students have been grounded and a significant decrease in the use of traditional technical means for the purpose of listening to music has been based. In addition, musical preferences practics and interactions with favorite artists and bands have shown the difference between the choice of real concert communication situations and virtual communication within the Internet. These practics allowed university students from different regions, such as Central and Eastern region, to broad access to cultural occasions during their education in high schools of the capital.
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