The category of «museality» in the contemporary museology discourse
AbstractThis article is devoted to analysis of ideological structures of so-called «objective» approach in modern museological science. Methodological aspects of interdisciplinary approach in museology that is based on the usage of methodology of major subjects by museum science are disclosed. In this approach, the total museology included theoretical aspects of museum work and was a kind of synthesis of special museologies, their point was to adjust to the museum of major disciplines (museology historical, natural and scientific museology, etc.). Methods of major subjects became methods of special museologies. In return theoretical understanding and ideological design of «museal» category among museologists of so-called «objective» approach contributed to the further transition of museology from empirical and descriptive stage (within the methodology of specialized disciplines) to the stage of theoretical and synthetic associated with the recognition of the value of the object / collection as a bearer of cultural documentation. Museology moved toward the systematic justification of its theoretical and methodological framework and achievement of a disciplinary independence. Therefore, special attention in the article is focused on trying of the major theoreticians of «objective» approach to develop a specific subject and methodological framework of museological research in the centre of which is a museum artefact, as a special cultural and historical phenomenon. In such context museology includes complex cultural and historical theoretical constructions in the subject of the research and approves to be an independent academic discipline. The concept of «museal» as one of the key terms in modern museological thought is analyzed. The merit of the scientific and theoretical reflection «museal» belongs the Czech museum theorist and practitioner Zbynek Stranski. At the heart of the museum phenomenon, according to the scientist, is the process of mastering reality within which the centre of gravity transferred from things per se and their utilitarian value to a memorial and cultural value of reality. The results of this process are attempts to save, despite the natural course of things, witnesses and representants of such values. An important contribution to the understanding and conceptual content of the term of «museal» also made such famous theorists of museology as Ivo Maroyevich, Frederick Vaydaher, Tomislav Shola, Peter van Mensh. Therefore, in research are emphasized scientific achievements of these scientists in the establishment of the theoretical foundations of modern mseological idea and its transformation into an independent academic discipline.
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