Socialcultural background of formation of classical metaphysics
AbstractThe classical model of philosophy has shaped ideas about its nature and aims that were laid in ancient metaphysics, but have been substantially amended by civilizational change. Socialcultural background of philosophy became trends that began to emerge in late medieval culture has particularly flourished there during modern times. Sphere of existence is important for the development of any spiritual phenomenon. For metaphysics it is the idea of humanity, acting as a kind of cultural protest against the domination of religion. This caused criticism of the medieval way of life and thinking. The idea of human revival based on spirit of antiquity has grounded. Disclaimer theological philosophy medieval variant type is as opposed to free philosophizing, coupled with poetry and literature, University dogmatic philosophy. There were a «rediscovery» of Plato, Aristotle reinterpretation. Philosophers explored a problem of human emotions and relationships, considering the person as a whole being, which is inherent in the mind, which cannot be considered without bodily desires and emotions. Change of the values awakened activity of the human person, led its transformation settings concerning himself and the surrounding world. Thus objectively obtained expression and ideological embodiment of civilization in a need of a new type of man - to a much greater extent compared to medieval activity, initiative, freedom, rationality, responsibility. Under the influence of such attitudes changes within religion gradually took place. Through the efforts of thinkers like Luther, Calvin, Munzer there were laid ideas of the Reformation that go far beyond its borders, gaining general cultural nature. The Church was increasingly losing control over everyday human existence. Gradually standards of a free, relaxed life became conventional; requirements of the body, «earthly» spirit demands fulfilling played a huge role. Thought and Culture of the Renaissance reflects the image of real life. In these circumstances, some religious institutions in the sixteenth century tried to revive and sustain the traditional symbols humble, «pure», ascetic life. But it could not curb the rapid process of reappraisal. Rationalist tendency, based on the elements of the ancient perception of the world and man’s role in it, influenced religion. Reformation caused profound changes in the spiritual and religious region, the political landscape of Europe and in the economic and social structures. Protestantism that arose in the social sphere leads to the formation of a new ethics that justifies the work in any form of business and that becomes part of the general moral values. This problem is clearly explained in the writings of W. Sombart and M. Weber.
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