A condition of a research of local government in the Ukrainian scientific literature
AbstractThe paper analyzes the scientific research on the topic of urban governance of the Ukrainian lands in the Russian Empire in late ХІХ – early ХХ1 centuries. Ideas and practice of local government have had a long tradition since veche meetings of Kiev Rus, the introduction of Magdeburg rights, institutions of Cossack’s democracy, the functioning of urban doom, provincial and district institutions, the rural meetings while Ukraine was a part of the Russian Empire, rural, burghs, township authorities, county and provincial commissioners, dooms in timesof UPR as well as in modern terms.In particular the author emphasizes that Ukrainian historiography of the first half of the nineteenth century, while studying state features of the Hetman period, is looking for syntheses in the form of general researches on the history of Ukraine, and espesially local government. D.Bantysh-Kamensky’s scientific papers give a systematic overview of the history of Ukraine from earlier times to the end of the eighteenth century, paying more attention to the Cossack self-government. At the same time Ukrainian historiography puts into focus the people’s life and motion in the age of Romanticism. Romantic fascination ethnic group then develops into compassion for the social and economic distress of the masses, mainly - the peasantry. Exploring the ukrainians as the subject of history, Ukrainian historiography puts it at the head of Ukrainian historical process. In certain cases, at different times and in different researchers populist trend characterizes all Ukrainian historiography of the middle and second half of the nineteenth century, and reviews its influence even in the first decades of the twentieth century. Populist trend is the most clearly evident in the researches of M.Maksymovych, P. Kulish, O.Lazarevsky and others who have dedicated their works mainly to the results of Cossack’s history and its management.The paper examines the views of revolutionary populists, who bowed to the rule of the will of the people, which was the basis for all levels of government. In the program principles of public government emphasized the democratic traditions of rural communities. Advancing the general democratic slogans of the sovereign right of nations to develop, they were not referring to a federation of equal nations, but a federation of communities united in regions and subordinated to the local regional management, and in the center-the central government. But populists did not give answers to life’s questions, practical recommendations concerning national problems.Central Council demonstrated its commitment to the institution of local government. However, not all of the documents announced the subordination of local governments to the central government.The Constitution of 1918 brings some clarity and perspectives of local government in the Ukrainian People’s Republic. The system of local government had to include the lands, provinces and communities, and their relationship with the state anticipated in the form: «Without prejudice to its single power, UPR provides land, townships and communities with the right of wide government, keeping to the principle of decentralization.» And in the civil war, those intentions were realized.
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