Features of cycles of Russian modernization in the context of the world-systems analysis
AbstractThe article describes the historical cycle of Russian modernization. It is shown that the first cycle lasted from the late XVII before the second decade of the XIX century. At this time modernization in the form of «westernization» contributed to the fact that in the XVIII century (in the period between the reigns of Peter I and Catherine II) Russia integrated into the world capitalist system and she was positioned as semiperiphery. But Russia was an empire in her characteristics also she has been active in foreign policy. And her desire to overcome the peripheral processes and closer to the core of the worldsystem resulted in «catchup» nature of modernization of Russian society. Russia’s victory in the Patriotic War of 1812 characterizes the overall positive outcome for her of this cycle of modernization. The second cycle dates from the late 50’s XIX – beginning of XX century. It was an example of the liberal model of modernization. As a result the lack of economic resources, «the nationalist conservatism» of the authorities, «bureaucratically directed industrialization» and accelerated modernization led to the tragedy of Russia in World War I and the revolutionary events of 1917. The choice in favor of selfsufficiency was made in the late 1920’s – early 1930’s, this marked the beginning of the third cycle of modernization of Russia in the form of industrialization, which has produced results. Economic growth continued after World War II as a result of implementation of fiveyear plans. The fourth cycle of Russian modernization characterized the events of «perestroika» the second half of the 1980’s and the period of postSoviet Russia of the 1990’s. Consequently, Russian Federation is in a position semiperiphery, and most of the New Independent States – within the periphery of the world capitalist system. It is proved that the first and third cycles belonged to the imperial model of modernization, and the second, and fourth – to the liberal model. The consequences of these cycles were analyzed.
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