Features of cycles of Russian modernization in the context of the world-systems analysis

  • P. I. Pashkovsky Taurida national V.I. Vernadsky university
Keywords: Russia, world­system analysis, cycles of modernization, imperial model, liberal model, periphery, semi­periphery, core


The article describes the historical cycle of Russian modernization. It is shown that the first cycle lasted from the late XVII before the second decade of the XIX century. At this time modernization in the form of «westernization» contributed to the fact that in the XVIII century (in the period between the reigns of Peter I and Catherine II) Russia integrated into the world capitalist system and she was positioned as semi­periphery. But Russia was an empire in her characteristics also she has been active in foreign policy. And her desire to overcome the peripheral processes and closer to the core of the world­system resulted in «catch­up» nature of modernization of Russian society. Russia’s victory in the Patriotic War of 1812 characterizes the overall positive outcome for her of this cycle of modernization. The second cycle dates from the late 50’s XIX – beginning of XX century. It was an example of the liberal model of modernization. As a result the lack of economic resources, «the nationalist conservatism» of the authorities, «bureaucratically directed industrialization» and accelerated modernization led to the tragedy of Russia in World War I and the revolutionary events of 1917. The choice in favor of self­sufficiency was made in the late 1920’s – early 1930’s, this marked the beginning of the third cycle of modernization of Russia in the form of industrialization, which has produced results. Economic growth continued after World War II as a result of implementation of five­year plans. The fourth cycle of Russian modernization characterized the events of «perestroika» the second half of the 1980’s and the period of post­Soviet Russia of the 1990’s. Consequently, Russian Federation is in a position semi­periphery, and most of the New Independent States – within the periphery of the world capitalist system. It is proved that the first and third cycles belonged to the imperial model of modernization, and the second, and fourth – to the liberal model. The consequences of these cycles were analyzed.

Author Biography

P. I. Pashkovsky, Taurida national V.I. Vernadsky university
PhD in political science


Wallerstein I. Rossija i kapitalisticheskaja mir­jekonomika, 1500 – 2010 (Russia and the capitalist world­economy, 1500 – 2010). Svobodnaja mysl’,1996, no. 5, pp. 30­42.

Vsemirnaja istorija: Mir v period sozdanija SSSR (World History: World during the creation of the USSR). Moscow, Minsk, 2002, 426 p.

Gavrov S.N. Modernizacija Rossii: postimperskij transit (Modernization of Russia: post­imperial transit). Moscow, 2010, 269 p.

Zaval’ko G. Mirovoj kapitalizm glazami I.Vallerstajna (World capitalism through the eyes of I.Wallerstein). Regime to access: http://www.situation.ru/app/j_art_825.htm.

Irhin A.A. Geopoliticheskie cikly Evrazii i nacional’nye interesy Ukrainy (Geopolitical cycles of Eurasia and the national interests of Ukraine). Sevastopol, 2011, 294 p.

Istorija Rossii: V 2 t., t. 2: S nachala XIX veka do nachala XXI veka (History of Russia: In 2 volumes, volume 2: From the beginning of the XIX century to the beginning of the XXI century). Moscow, 2003. 862 p.

Kagarlicky B. Ju. Periferijnaja imperija: cikly russkoj istorii (Peripheral Empire: cycles of Russian history). Moscow, 2009, 576 p.

Kononov I.F. Transformacionnyj opyt Ukrainy, Rossii i Belarusi: poisk interpretativnyh modelej (Transformational experience of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus: search interpretive models). Vіsnik Lugans’kogo nacіonal’nogo unіversitetu іmenі T. Shevchenka. Serіja: Socіologіchnі nauki, 2010, vol. 2, part I, no. 12 (199), pp. 84­108.

Liven D. Rossija kak imperija i periferija (Russia as an empire and peripherals). Rossija v global’noj politike, 2008, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 36­46.

Pashkovsky P.I. Cikly modernizacii Rossii: istoricheskij opyt (Cycles of modernization of Russia: historical experience). Naukovij vіsnik. Odes’kij nacіonal’nij ekonomіchnij unіversitet. Vseukraїns’ka asocіacіja molodih naukovcіv, Nauki: ekonomіka, polіtologіja, іstorіja, 2012, no. 23 (175), pp. 73­89.

Pashkovsky P.I. Rossija v mirovoj kapitalisticheskoj sisteme: istoricheskij kontekst pozicionirovanija (Russia in the world capitalist system: the historical context of positioning). Uchjonye zapiski Tavricheskogo nacional’nogo universiteta im. V.I. Vernadskogo, Serija: Filosofija. Kul’turologija. Politologija. Sociologija, 2013, vol. 24 (65), no.1­2, pp. 383­395.

Politicheskaja istorija Rossii (Political history of Russia). Moscow, 1998. 696 p.

Politologija: Slovar’­spravochnik (Political science: Reference Dictionary). Moscow, 2000, 328 p.

Skrynnikov R. Boris Godunov (Boris Godunov). Moscow, 2003, 416 p.

Toynbee A. J. Postizhenie istorii (A study of history). Moscow, 2006, 640 p.

Travin D., Marganija O. Evropejskaja modernizacija (European modernization). V 2 kn. Kn. 1. Moscow, St. Petersburg, 2004, 665 p.

Worth R. Antanta i russkaja revoljucija. 1917– 1918 (Entente and the Russian Revolution. 1917 ­ 1918). Moscow, 2006, 271 p.

Utkin A.I. Pod’jom i padenie Zapada (The Rise and Fall of the West). Moscow, 2008, 761 p.

Huntington S. Stolknovenie civilizacij (The Clash of Civilizations). Moscow, 2005, 603 p.

Hosking G. Rossija: narod i imperija (1552–1917) (Russia: people and empire). Smolensk, 2001, 512 p.

Cohen A. Domestic Factors Driving Russia’s Foreign Policy. Regime to access: http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/2007/11/Domestic­Factors­Driving­Russias­Foreign­Policy.

Global studies: Russia, the Eurasian Republics, and Central/Eastern Europe. Sixth edition. Guilford, 1996. 308 p.

Kennedy P. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. New York, 1987, 677 p.

How to Cite
Pashkovsky, P. I. (2014). Features of cycles of Russian modernization in the context of the world-systems analysis. Scientific and Theoretical Almanac Grani, 17(3), 81-86. Retrieved from https://grani.org.ua/index.php/journal/article/view/458