The theory of «basic myth» as a structural method in the study of ancient pagan and Slavic mythology
AbstractThe method of structural analysis of the Soviet Union was first used philologists, linguists V.V. Ivanov and V.N. Toporov for the study of ancient Russian mythology. It was developed by them in 60-70 years. Then it was tested in the study of Slavic mythology and the ancient Russian paganism. The name of this scientific approach it is the Theory of «basic myth. It has become something of a free zone from Marxist methodology. It was dominated in France. French structural anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss created this method. In Russian historiography there was the influence of the old «mythological» school (A.N Afanas’ev etc.). Thus, the authors of this theory draw huge source material – folklore (fairy tales, myths, legends, proverbs, signs), epic, Vedic hymns etc. «Basic myth» proposed by scientists, was the reconstruction that based on mythological reconstructions. The basis of the reconstruction was the story about struggle between snake and Peru. With this opposition correlate all others: light-dark, top-bottom and others. This «basic myth» has been designed by researchers based on a comparison of the Vedic myth of the fight of Indra with Vritroyu, Baltic mythology and stories about Perkunas and Velnyase. Authors identified the snake-demon Vrytra with Valo and then with Veles (Volos). It was antagonist of Thunder (Perun). The authors of this theory considered that «basic myth» was the basis for the mythology of Indo-European population. The «basic myth» was reflected in East tales of struggle heroes of the dragon – the authors conducted a parallel between Ilya Muromets, Ilya the Prophet and between Perun and Veles and Gorynych-Snake. The author of the article presents the situation historiographical discourse emerged against the background of the existence of the theory of «basic myth», presented by followers’ motivations of and its opponents. The main feature of representatives of structural school is the concentration their attention to the level of philosophical generalizations. However, modern historiography has the tendency to deep and serious research the paganism in perspective. The paganism and the Slavic mythology may be considered as an integrated and ideological system. The author evaluated the impact of the theory of «basic myth» based on a structural method to modern historiography of ancient paganism and Slavic mythology. The author highlighted trends of contemporary historiography of studying this subject.
Anichkov E.V., 2000. Jazychestvo i Drevnjaja Rus’ [Paganism and the ancient Rus’]. Moscow, 385 (in Russian).
Afanas’ev A.N., 1957. Narodnye russkie skazki [Russian Fairy Tales]. Moscow, 385 (in Russian).
Glinka G.A., 2003. Drevnjaja religija slavjan [The ancient religion of the Slavs]. Moscow, 156 (in Russian).
Grierson Elizabeth W. The Scottish Fairy Book / Elizabeth W. Grierson. – New York, 1910. – 311 p. (in English).
Danilov O.V., Zolotova T.A., 1996. Ocherki tradicionnoj kul’tury narodov Povolzh’ja [Sketches of the traditional culture of the peoples of the Volga region]. Moscow, 100 (in Russian).
D’jakonov I.M., 2000. Arhaicheskie mify Vostoka i Zapada [The archaic myths of East and West]. Moscow, 209 (in Russian).
Zemcovskij I.I., 1970. Pojezija krest’janskih prazdnikov [Poetry peasant holidays]. Moscow, 635 (in Russian).
Zolotova T.A., Trofimov G.A., Churakova N.I., 2014. «Osnovnoj» mif i ego otrazhenie v fol’klore i massovoj literature [«Main» myth and its reflection in the folklore and popular literature]. Fundamental’nye issledovanija 3, 651-657 (in Russian).
Ivanov, V.V. Toporov, V.N.,1974. Issledovanija v oblasti slavjanskih drevnostej [Research in the field of Slavic antiquities]. Moscow, 213 (in Russian).
Ivanov, V.V., Toporov, V.N., 1980. Slavjanskaja mifologija [Slavic mythology]. Moscow, 450-456 (in Russian).
Kajsarov A.S., 1993. Mify drevnih slavjan [The myths of the ancient Slavs]. Moscow, 385 (in Russian).
Kajsarov A.S., 1993. Slavjanskaja i rossijskaja mifologija [Slavic and Russian mythology]. Saratov, 1627 (in Russian).
Kastorskij M.I., 1841. Nachertanie slavjanskoj mifologii [Inscription Slavic mythology]. St. Petersburg, 182 (in Russian).
Klejn L.S., 2004. Voskreshenie Peruna. K rekonstrukcii vostochnoslavjanskogo jazychestva [Resurrection Perun. By the reconstruction of the East Slavic paganism]. Moscow, 214 (in Russian).
Lihachev D.S., 1988. Kreshhenie Rusi i gosudarstvo Rus’ [Baptism of Russia and the State]. Novyj mir 6, 249–258. (in Russian).
Lushnikov A.A., 2007. Istoriografija jazychestva drevnih slavjan [Historiography Paganism ancient Slavs]. Penza, 15-35 (in Russian).
Mitrohin L.N. Mifologija [Mythology]. Regime to eccess: http://enc-dic.com/philosophy/Mifologija-1391.html.
Osipova O.S., 2000. Slavjanskoe jazycheskoe miroponimanie (filosofskoe issledovanie) [Slavic pagan worldview (philosophical research)]. Moscow, 59 (in Russian).
Popov M.I., 2010. Opisanie drevnjago slavenskago jazycheskago basnoslovija, sobrannago iz raznyh pisatelej, i snabdennago primechanijami [Description of the ancient pagan Slavic fables collected by different writers with notes].
Potebnja A.A., 2000. Simvol i mif v narodnoj kul’ture [Symbol and myth in popular culture]. Moscow, 210 (in Russian).
Propp V.Ja., 2000. Russkie agrarnye prazdniki: opyt istoriko-jetnograficheskogo issledovanija [Russian agricultural festivals: experience of historical and ethnographic research]. Moscow, 186 (in Russian).
Rybakov B.A., 1981. Jazychestvo drevnih slavjan [Paganism of ancient Slavs]. Moscow, 689 (in Russian).
Sossjur de Ferdinand , 2005. Kurs obshhej lingvistiki [Course in General Linguistics]. Moscow, 254 (in Russian).
Sudnik T.M., Civ’jan T.V., 1978. K rekonstrukcii sjuzheta osnovnogo mifa v balto-balkanskoj perspektive (fragment «Zhena i deti Gromoverzhca») [By the reconstruction of the main plot of the myth in the Baltic and Balkan perspective (fragment, «The wife and children of the God of Thunder»)]. Moscow, 124–131 (in Russian).
Toporov V.N., 1995. Bogi [Gods]. Moscow, 204–215 (in Russian).
Toporov V.N., 1993. Tri zametki o malyh fol’klornyh formah [Three notes on small forms of folklore]. Moscow, 234 (in Russian).
Uspenskij B.A., 1982. Filologicheskie razyskanija v oblasti slavjanskih drevnostej (Relikty jazychestva v vostochnoslavjanskom kul’te Nikolaja Mirlikijskogo) [Philological Researches in the field of Slavic Antiquities (Relics of paganism in the East Slavic cult of Nicholas of Myra)]. Moscow, 205 (in Russian).
Chulkov M.D., 2014. Abevega russkih sueverij, idolopoklonnicheskih zhertvoprinoshenij, svadebnyh prostonarodnyh obrjadov, koldovstva, shamanstva i prochego [Russian superstition, idolatrous sacrifices, vulgar wedding rituals, witchcraft, shamanism and other]. Moscow, 274 (in Russian).
Shepping O.D., 1997. Mify slavjanskogo jazychestva [Myths of Slavic paganism]. Moscow, 239 (in Russian).