Acts of terrorism in Paris and Brussels: common and different
AbstractThe article investigates the common and distinctive features of the terrorist attacks in Paris and Brussels in 2015 and 2016. The attacks have confirmed the weakness of European security system in the context of the protection of its citizens from the threat № 1 in the world. The high level of democracy and liberalism are not allowed to use power instruments effectively in the fight against terrorism, which was the result of the fact that the terrorists were able to freely access to the place of their acts and to implement them. It was determined that the common features are the following: in Paris and in Brussels, the attacks were carried out by terrorist militaristic group «The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant» (ISIL); the places of commission of terrorist acts; guns of terrorists; military units of France and Belgium are parties of the armed conflict in Syria on the side of the Syrian opposition and struggle against ISIL; there were a few terrorist attacks. It is proved that the differences are as follows: in Paris, in addition to explosives, packed with nails, also were used automatic weapons and grenades, but only explosives in Brussels; France is more active in the fight against terrorism in the international arena and in every way opposed to violence against humanity, so there is a terrorist attack can be seen as a blow to the democratic and humanitarian values; Belgium is a «political heart» of the European Union that’s why the terrorist attack on it can be seen as a blow to the political system of the EU; in Paris, the attack was supposed to apply except for the population and for high officials in the name of F. Hollande and F. Steinmeier, and in Brussels – only civilians.conducting effective public diplomacy by means of virtual diplomacy. In the context of the establishment of the global information society the key target groups must be: Diasporas, foreign media (including bloggers), investors, influential foreign politicians and officials, virtual communities. The most active and effective policy on the work with these target audiences today is conducted by the USA.
V aeroportu Bryusselya stalys’ dva vybukhy [At Brussels Airport, two explosions occurred]. Access: http://www.hromadske.tv/world/v-aeroportu-bryusselya-stalis-dva-vibukhi/ (22.03.2016). (in Ukrainian).
Vybukhy v Bryusseli: usi podrobytsi trahediyi [Explosions in Brussels, all the details of the tragedy]. Dzerkalo tyzhnya. Access: http://dt.ua/WORLD/vibuhi-v-bryusseli-usi-podrobici-203248_.html (22.03.2016). (in Ukrainian).
«ID» vzyalo vidpovidal’nist’ za vybukhy v Bryusseli [«ID» took responsibility for the bombings in Brussels]. BBC Ukrayina. Access: http://www.bbc.com/ukrainian/politics/2016/03/160322_brussels_explosions_ms (22.03.2016). (in Ukrainian).
ID nazvala terakty v Bryusseli «prelyudiyeyu» i obitsyaye novi terorystychni akty [ID called terrorist attack in Brussels «prelude» and promised new terrorist attacks]. Ukrayins’ki novyny. Access: http://ukranews.com/news/203978.IG-nazval-terakti-v-Bryussele-prelyudiey-i-obeshchayut-novie-terroristicheskie-akti.uk (27.03.2016). (in Ukrainian).
Niderlandy poperedzhaly Bryussel’ pro terorystiv-smertnykiv [Netherlands Brussels warned of suicide bombers]. Racurs.ua. Access: http://ua.racurs.ua/news/69047-niderlandy-poperedjaly-brussel-pro-terorystiv-smertnykiv (30.03.2016). (in Ukrainian).
Tsiny na naftu vpaly na povidomlennyakh pro vybukhy v Bryusseli [Oil prices fell on reports of explosions in Brussels]. UNIAN. Access: http://economics.unian.ua/energetics/1296691-tsini-na-naftu-vpali-na-povidomlennyah-pro-vibuhi-v-bryusseli.html (22.03.2016). (in Ukrainian).
Paris attacks: Bataclan and other assaults leave many dead. Access: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-34814203 (14.11.2015). – Title from screen.
Paris In Lockdown As Attack Accomplices Hunted. Sky News. Access: http://news.sky.com/story/1587373/paris-in-lockdown-as-attack-accomplices-hunted (14.11.2015).
Phipps, C., Rawlinson, K. Paris attacks kill more than 120 people – as it happened. The Guardian.
Access: http://www.theguardian.com/world/live/2015/nov/13/shootings-reported-in-eastern-paris-live (14.11.2015).
Retour sur le droulement des attaques terroristes meurtrires Paris. RFI. Access: http://www.rfi.fr/france/2min/20151113-plusieurs-fusillades-cours-paris-victimes-bataclan-charonne (13.11.2015). – Nom
Sulzer, A. Explosions prs du Stade de France: Hollande exfiltr du match France-Allemagne. L’express. Access: http://www.lexpress.fr/actualite/societe/fait-divers/une-fusillade-dans-le-10e-arrondissement-de-paris_1735709.html (13.11.2015).
VIDEOS. Attentats Paris : ce que l’on sait des six attaques. Le Parisien. Access: http://www.leparisien.fr/faits-divers/au-moins-six-attaques-ont-touche-paris-vendredi-soir-13-11-2015-5273917.php#xtref=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.facebook.com%2F (13.11.2015).