Earning money spouses intellectuals Naddnipryans’kа Ukraine (60 - 80’s. XIX century)

  • A. I. Nikitenko Dnipropetrovsk medical academy
Keywords: ucrainophiles intellectuals, married couples’ life, strategies of earning money, civil service, private entrepreneurship, teaching activity, financial problems


On the basis of archival and published narratives (diaries, memoirs, epistolary) the article deals with the strategies of married couples of intellectuals of Dnieper Ukraine who earn money in the second half of the nineteenth century. The areas where the intellectuals express themselves, their incomes, the possibility to satisfy the basic needs for received payments, attempts of holding entrepreneurship, and female labour have been analysed. The sources indicate that the vast majority of ucrainophiles intellectuals were involved in public service, particularly as university teachers and school teachers. The profit received from this activity often could not provide the financial health of the married couples. Under these conditions the search for additional earnings became urgent, in particular teaching in private schools, giving lessons, participation in periodicals etc. Some intellectuals earned their living by means of creative activity, and received fees for that which were not regular and depended on the mood in society, literary and artistic fashion, national and cultural policy of the Russian Empire. Besides, some representatives of Ukrainian ucrainophiles tried to conduct private business. This method of earning a living was often negatively perceived by democratically minded environment, and was considered to be a demonstration of commercialism. Under the pressure of social circle’s thought, some intellectuals abandoned entrepreneurship or had to break relations with their ideological supporters. The study concludes that ucrainophiles intellectuals had few options for earning money. The pays obtained in the civil service was often not enough for ensuring the basic needs of the couples that gave rise to financial problems. Interest in the ideas of social equality, prejudiced attitude towards capital and business repelled the majority of ucrainophiles from private enterpreneurship.


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How to Cite
Nikitenko, A. (2015). Earning money spouses intellectuals Naddnipryans’kа Ukraine (60 - 80’s. XIX century). Grani, 18(9), 96-100. https://doi.org/10.15421/1715183