L. N. Tolstoy's concept of non-resistance to evil by violence and its spiritual orientation

  • Viacheslav Kuzmenko Dnipropetrovsk State University of Internal Affairs
Keywords: social philosophy, social psychology, non-classical thinking, post-non-classical thinking, methodology, interdisciplinarity, singularity, experimentalism

Abstract

According to L. Tolstoy, the essence of human being consists in the realization of the contradiction between his inherent thirst for life and the inevitability of death. In "Confession", L. N. Tolstoy writes that the possibility of a spiritual search for a way out of the existing dilemma consists in comprehending the Orthodox faith. However, many people do not immediately come to "faith". A person’s approach to the realization of this contradiction is the highest spirituality. It is precisely in "faith" that a person is able to get rid of thoughts about the corruption of the soul, and accordingly, stop committing evil, and is able not to resist evil with violence.According to L. Tolstoy, to whom he comes, love is enclosed in the heart of man. This provision was understood not only by theologians, but also by philosophers, it is bright, life-affirming, as the thinker states, the position of love in the human heart is revealed in the commandments of Christ.In "Confession", L. N. Tolstoy writes that he came to the problem of non-resistance to evil after fifty years. I would like to note that, implicitly, he solves it both in the novel “War and Peace” and in the novel "Anna Karenina". The indicated problem is always relevant for him. Recall the images of captain Tushin and Anatol Kuragin. The author does not oppose, but completely breeds them. Contradictory, however, living in "love" is represented and the image of Bezukhov. The same can be said about Vronsky, and about Anna Karenina, and about her husband. But the thinker turned directly to the problem of non-resistance to evil after fifty years. This is clearly evidenced by his religious, journalistic and artistic works.Can a person, living in a state of non-violence, in a state of love for his neighbors, be engaged in solving private life problems, or does faith need this for sure. The thinker answers this question in Confession. Note that L. N. Tolstoy solves the problem of non-resistance to evil in its entirety, as he claims, under the influence of knowledge and life experiences, under the influence of everything that has been given to him since childhood.

References

Balu, A. (1908). Uchenie o khristianskom neprotivlenii zlu nasiliem [Teaching about Christian non-resistance to evil by violence]. (A. Balu, Trans.). Moskva: Posrednik [in Russian].

Van Lantcziui. (2018). Transkulturnye filosofskie paralleli: sistema obrazov romana L. N. Tolstogo «Voina i mir» v svete idei Konfutciia i Lao-tczy [Transcultural philosophical parallels: the system of images of Leo Tolstoy's novel "War and Peace" in the light of the ideas of Confucius and Lao Tzu]. Irkutsk: Izd-vo IGU [in Russian].

Golubeva, G. A. (2007). Etika [Ethics]. Moskva: Ekzamen [in Russian].

Gusev, N. N. (1936). Letopis zhizni i tvorchestva L. N. Tolstogo [Chronicle of the life and work of L. N. Tolstoy]. Moskva, Leningrad: Academia [in Russian].

Gusev-Roshchinetc, V. I. (2009). Neprotivlenie zlu nasiliem [Non-resistance to evil by violence]. Moskva: Kazarov [in Russian].

Guseinov, A. A., & Apresian, R. G. (2005). Etika [Ethics]. Moskva: Gardariki [in Russian].

Guseinov, A. A. (1995). Velikie moralisty [Great moralists]. Moskva: Respublika [in Russian].

Dmitrievskaia, I. V. (2013). Metafizika zlogo serdtca: problema ontologizatcii zla v bytii mira i cheloveka [Metaphysics of the Evil Heart: the Problem of Ontologizing Evil in the Life of the World and Man]. Moskva: Flinta [in Russian].

Emelianov, B. V., & Malyshev, M. A. (2010). Russkaia mysl po-russki i po-ispanski [Russian Thought in Russian and in Spanish]. Ekaterinburg: Izd-vo Uralskogo un-ta [in Russian].

Ivanov, N. G. (2018). Besedy o prestuplenii i nakazanii v predelakh ugolovnogo prava i ne tolko, umnozhaiushchie skorb [Conversations about crime and punishment within the limits of criminal law and not only, multiplying grief]. Moskva: Iurlitinform [in Russian].

Ilin, I. A. (2019). O soprotivlenii zlu siloi [On resistance to evil by force]. Moskva: Dar, pech. [in Russian].

Ilin, I. A. (2012). Osnovy khristianskoi kultury [Foundations of Christian culture]. Moskva: LitRes [in Russian].

Kvitko, D. Iu. (1928). Filosofiia Tolstogo [Philosophy of Tolstoy]. Moskva: Kommunist [in Russian].

Kubikov, I. N. (1928). Lev Tolstoi [Lev Tolstoy]. Moskva; Leningrad: Gos. izd-vo [in Russian].

Lukatckii, M. A. (2018). Kultura i obrazovanie v trudakh Lva Tolstogo i Erikha Fromma – myslitelei, izmenivshikh nashe ponimanie mira [Culture and Education in the Works of Leo Tolstoy and Erich Fromm ¬– Thinkers Who Changed Our Understanding of the World]. Moskva: MAKS Press [in Russian].

Lure, Ia. S. (1993). Posle Lva Tolstogo: Ist. vozzreniia Tolstogo i probl. XX v. [After Leo Tolstoy: East. views of Tolstoy and probl. XX century]. Sankt-Peterburg [in Russian].

Ordina, O. N. (2008). Russkaia religioznaia filosofiia XIX veka: I. Kireevskii, K. Leontev, F. Dostoevskii, L. Tolstoi [Russian religious philosophy of the 19th century: I. Kireevsky, K. Leontiev, F. Dostoevsky, L. Tolstoy]. Kirov: Staraia Viatka [in Russian].

Petcukh, V. A. (2008). Russkaia tema [Russian theme]. Moskva: Globulus [in Russian].

Sokhriakov, Iu. I. (2000). Natcionalnaia ideia v otechestvennoi publitcistike XIX nachala XX vv [The National Idea in Russian Journalism of the 19th and early 20th centuries]. Moskva: Nasledie [in Russian].

Sukhov, A. D. (2001). Iasnopolianskii mudretc: Traditcii russkogo filosofstvovaniia v tvorchestve L. N. Tolstogo [Yasnopolyansky sage: Traditions of Russian philosophizing in the works of L. N. Tolstoy]. Moskva [in Russian].

Taliashvili, G. A. (1951). Lev Tolstoi i Gruziia [Lev Tolstoy and Georgia]. Tbilisi: Zaria Vostoka [in Russian].

Titlinov, B. V. (1907). «Khristianstvo» gr. L.N. Tolstogo i khristianstvo evangeliia ["Christianity" gr. L.N. Tolstoy and Christianity of the Gospel]. Sankt-Peterburg: tip. Montvida [in Russian].

Tolstoi, L. N. (1983). Publitcisticheskie proizvedeniia 1855–1886. Vospitanie i obrazovanie [Publicistic works 1855-1886. Upbringing and education]. Sobr. soch. – Collected Works. (Vol. 16). Moskva: Khudozhestvennaia literatura [in Russian].

Tolstoi, L. N. (1986).Dnevniki 1847–1894 [Diaries 1847–1894.]. Sobr. soch. – Collected Works. (Vol. 21). Moskva: Khudozhestvennaia literatura [in Russian].

Tolstoi, L. N. (1983). Publitcisticheskie proizvedeniia 1855–1886. Ispoved [Publicistic works 1855-1886. Confession]. Sobr. soch. – Collected Works. (Vol. 16). Moskva: Khudozhestvennaia literature [in Russian].

Shirokova, I. G. (2006). Etika [Ethics]. Moskva: Prior [in Russian].

Published
2020-08-10
How to Cite
Kuzmenko, V. (2020). L. N. Tolstoy’s concept of non-resistance to evil by violence and its spiritual orientation. Scientific and Theoretical Almanac Grani, 23(5), 96-104. https://doi.org/10.15421/172057
Section
PHILOSOPHY