Pandemic as an antisystem: analysis of constitutive aspects

Keywords: pandemic, negative medianity, language games, mosaic, simiotic approach, extreme situation, entropy, negentropy binary opposition


It has been shown in the article that the negative medianity is that theoretical concept, which, on the one hand, shows the clinical picture of each particular case of a pandemic, and, on the other hand, it takes into account the socio-cultural, economic-geographical and other specific circumstances of the emergence of the pandemic.It has been found out that cases of the negative medianity can be represented in the horizons of language games by L. Wittgenstein. The essence of mosaic pandemics has been characterized through the concept of language games, firstly, by a certain set of concepts (verbal cut), secondly, by a certain set of actions for the diagnosis and counteraction of a pandemic (nonverbal cut), thirdly, by a certain compendium of the rules to be followed (normative cut), and fourthly, by some uncertainty as it is impossible to predict how pandemic will end (a cut of uncertainty).A semiotic approach to the study of the phenomenon of the pandemic has been suggested. It has been shown that the semiotic approach to the study of the pandemic contains, on the one hand, the stratagems of a medical semiotic, which consists of general and private parts, and on the other hand, it consists of semiotics as a humanitarian and interdisciplinary research direction.It has been found out that the semiotic structure of the pandemic should take into account three levels which predict each other mutually.It has been shown in the article that the concept of «extreme situation» is based on the non-classical understanding of the situation, which involves the presence of several aspects: problems, shocks, choices, boundaries and mood. It has been proved that the features of the pandemic as an extreme situation are: negligence, danger, extra ordinariness, stress, non-adaptation. The three layers of the extreme situation have been revealed (empirical, containing a number of moments: occurrence, vital safety, marginality, reality and potentialities of consequences; formal-psychological, reactive, personal, interactive, transactional points of view; meta psychological or ontological or existential-axiological, which in its turn includes three points of view: meta-psychological, ontological and existential-axiological).It has been shown that the antagonism of entropy and negentropy in the framework of the humanity-environment system is mutually exclusive and is rooted in the fundamental binary opposition of «order / chaos». And in the modern post-classical world this requires the search for new dialogues between humanity and the environment.


1. Averianov, A.N. (1985). Sistemnoe poznanie mira: Metodologicheskie problemy [Systemic knowledge of the world: Methodological problems]. Moscow: Politizdat [in Russian].
2. Vallerstain, I. (2008). Kapitalisticheskaia tcivilizatciia [Capitalist civilization]. Moscow: TNI KMK [in Russian].
3. Gumilev, L.N. (2001). Etnogenez i biosfera Zemli [Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere of the Earth]. Saint Petersburg: Kristall [in Russian].
4. Gumilev, L.N. (2002). Etnosfera: istoriia liudei i istoriia prirody [Ethnosphere: history of people and history of nature]. Saint Petersburg: Kristall [in Russian].
5. Koriavtcev, P.M. Filosofiia antisistem [The philosophy of anti-system]. Retrieved from: [in Russian].
6. Magomed-Eminov, M.Sh. (2009). Opredelenie ekstremalnoi situatcii [Defining an Extreme Situation]. Rossiiskii psikhologicheskii zhurnal, 6 (1), 13-24 [in Russian].
7. Malinovskii, A.A. (2000). Tektologiia. Teoriia sistem. Teoreticheskaia biologiia [Tectology. Systems Theory. Theoretical Biology]. Moscow: Editorial URSS [in Russian].
8. Morris, Ch.U. (2001). Osnovaniia teorii znakov [The foundations of the theory of signs]. Semiotika: Antologiia. (pp. 45-98). Moscow: Akademproekt [in Russian].
9. Smirnov E.I., Lebedinskii, V.A., & Garin, N.S. (1988). Voiny i epidemii [Wars and epidemics]. Moscow: Meditcina [in Russian].
10. Supotnitckii, M.V. (2000). Mikroorganizmy, toksiny i epidemii [Microorganisms, toxins and epidemics]. Moscow: [in Russian].
11. Tokarevich, K.N., & Grekova, T.I. (1986). Po sledam minuvshikh epidemii [In the wake of past epidemics]. Leningrad: Lenizdat [in Russian].
12. Khamitov, N.V. (2002). Ghranychna sytuacija [Limit Situation]. Filosofsjkyj encyklopedychnyj slovnyk. Kyiv: Abrys [in Ukrainian].
13. Shambadal, P. (1967). Razvitie i prilozhenie poniatiia entropii [The development and application of the concept of entropy]. Moscow: Nauka [in Russian].
14. Shakh, S. (2016). Pandemiia: Istoriia smertelnykh virusov [Pandemic: A History of Deadly Viruses]. Moscow: «Alpina Didzhital» [in Russian].
15. Iatcik, І.S. (2009). Granichna situatcіia ekzistentcії vchinku: povnota ekzistentcії u fіlosofії Nіkolo Abbaniano ta «liudina na mezhі» Karla Iaspersa [Limiting situation of the existence of the act: completeness of existence in philosophy Nicolo Abbignano and «man on the brink» of Karl Jaspers]. Candidate`s thesis. Zhitomir [in Ukrainian].
16. Bertalanffy, L. (1968). General System Theory. NYC: Library of Congress Catalog
17. Lutsenko, E.V. ASK-analis kak metod vyyavleniya kognitivnyh funkicional’nyh zavisimostej v mnogomernyh zashumlennyh fragmentirovannyh dannyh [ASC-analysis as a method for identifying cognitive functional dependencies in multidimensional noisy fragmented data]. Retrieved from: [in Russian].
18. Quammen, D. (2014). Ebola: The Natural and Human History of a Deadly Virus. NYC: W.W. Norton & Company.
19. Quammen, D. (2012). Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic. London : Bodley Head.
How to Cite
Lukanova, V. (2019). Pandemic as an antisystem: analysis of constitutive aspects. Grani, 21(11), 86-93.