The expansion of the education market and economization of education system: sociological analysis
AbstractThe authors’ attention is drawn to the phenomenon of marketing and economization, and the expansion of the education market. It is noted that universities and research institutes, hospitals and schools, the military and the church, newspapers and television stations, museums and opera houses – all of them are completely different types of organizations, but as well as several others over the past decades were subjects of economization. It is considered the concept of commodification (converting the product into a commodity) in relation to subsistence production, quasigoods, fake goods, real goods and fictitious capital. Overall, it is analyzed the understanding of the market economy of K. Polanyi, the role of information, knowledge and intellect in the postindustrial economy. It is alleged that in such circumstances, knowledge takes the form of the product. As knowledge is collectively produced and hasn’t got any deficiency (from an economic point of view, it is not competitive), it obtains the commodity form, being artificially scarce. The article is observed that the market mindset has a profound impact on the education system: from elementary to high school education goal is to collect as much information as possible for the purposes of the market. Not a new phenomenon of the late XX century was the private sector of education, because in the information society had to create a cheap and effective way to mass higher education. This is due to the fact that private higher education is the fastest and most responsive to the innovations that bring with it ever more advanced information technologies. However, marketing and economization are topics of a number of research and development perspectives in sociology and other social sciences. At the moment, these prospects are barely related to each other, and each of them is still under development. The largest number of studies on market expansion and economization have been made in social spheres and organizations. Thus, universities and research institutes, hospitals and schools, armed forces and churches, newspapers and television stations, museums and opera houses - all these very different types of organizations, as well as others, have been influenced by economization over the past decades. Obviously, the study of certain social spheres provides most of the specific empirical knowledge of available marketing and economics; while three other approaches - the theory of social development, economic sociology and sociology of management reach a more generalized theoretical level of analysis. In particular, both theoretical and empirical studies of economics and marketing deal with the following questions: 1. How was economization conceptualized? What are the determining properties and forms of this phenomenon? 2. What is the dynamics of economization and market expansion? What is their origin, conditions and mechanisms and what determines their strength? What are the typical conflicts over the introduction and establishment of eco-management measures? 3. What are the consequences of economization and marketing? What functional and dysfunctional results of economization can be distinguished? So this set of questions needs a sociological explanation and study.
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