Historical and theoretical foundations for the study and diachronic dimension of labour migration

Keywords: migration in Ukraine, migratory sentiment, migration processes, emigration, country-donor, country-recipient, temporary labor migration, economic determinism

Abstract

The article focuses on the analysis of migration processes in the diachronic measurement and to determine the basic theoretical principles. In particular, main waves of labour migration are studied, their temporal scopes are outlined. Basic tendencies of the considered last-wave subperiods are analysed. The research is based on the impressive number of theoretical and methodological works related to the subject. The analysis of these works accomplished by Ukrainian and foreign scientists has revealed that the phenomenon of labour migration from Ukraine is of complicated nature and is not reduced to purely economic reasons. Because today, people migrate not only to meet physiological or other material needs, but also to meet their social needs. Also, life in another country became the norm for them, and the new cultural environment created a new social reality.It should be emphasized that the fourth wave of Ukrainian migration has a qualitatively different character compared to the first three. The main reasons for this migration wave, due to relevant studies, are economic ones, since economic factor was dominant for the labour migrants’ motivations. Also, transformation of family values and roles is observed during that period. On the basis of the studied scientific literature, as well as on the author’s own research, the main subperiods of the fourth wave of labour migration, referred to generally as economic migration, are identified.The main concepts of migration are also considered, and the categories of labour migrants are analysed. Moreover, author’s personal approach to the concepts of «migration» and «labour migrant» is introduced. Based on the analyzed material defined the gender features of modern labor migration, in particular, the main directions of migration, conditions of living abroad, the sphere of employment and the level of remuneration, are determined.In current research, qualitative methods are applied, in particular, semi-structured interviews with labour migrants, which, combined with quantitative methods, allow to more deeply analyse the stages of labour migration among the residents of Lviv region. For empirical research, we used the author’s methodology for studying migratory processes among contemporary Ukrainian labor migrants, which was formed by combining qualitative (covering more than 40 interviews with labour migrants) and quantitative components.

References

Jary, D., & Jary, J. (2001). Bol’shoj tolkovyj sociologicheskij slovar’. Tom 2 (P–Ja) [Large explanatory sociological dictionary. Vol. 2]. Moscow: Veche, AST (in Russian)

Volodko, V. V. (2004). Tsinnisni oriyentatsiyi suchasnykh trudovykh mihrantiv z Ukrayiny (hendernyy aspekt) [Value orientations of modern labor migrants from Ukraine (gender perspective)]. Metodolohiya, teoriya ta praktyka sotsiolohichnoho analizu suchasnoho suspil’stva: Zbirnyk naukovykh prats’ [Methodology, Theory and Practice of Sociological Analysis of Modern Society: Collection of Scientific Works] Kharkiv: V. N. Karazin National University, 607-609 (in Ukrainian).

Sayenko, Yu. I. (ed.), 2007. Genderni stereotypy ta stavlennya hromads’kosti do gendernykh problem v ukrayins’komu suspil’stvi [Gender stereotypes and public attitudes towards gender issues in Ukrainian society]. Кyiv (in Ukrainian).

Hotra O. B. (2010). Trudova mihratsiya – pozytyvni ta nehatyvni naslidky: istoriohrafiya problemy [Labor migration – positive and negative consequences: historiography of the problem]. Chornomors’kyy litopys, (2), 106-111 (in Ukrainian).

Guseva, Ju. (2004). Politika “Novogo byta” v SSSR [The policy of the “New Life” in the USSR]. In Meleshko, T. A., & Rabzhaeva, M. V. (ed,), Variacii na temu gendera. Materialy III mezhvuzovskoj konferencii molodyh issledovatelej “Gendernye otnoshenija v rossijskom obshhestve” [Variations on the Subject of Gender: Proceedings of the III Interuniversity Conference of Young Researchers “Gender Relations in Contemporary Russian Society”]. Saint-Petersburg: Aletejja (in Russian).

Demohrafichna sytuatsiya. Naselennya (1990-2013 rr.) [Demographic situation. Population (1990-2013)] (2013). Retrieved from: http://www.ukrstat.gov.ua (in Ukrainian).

Libanova, E. M. (ed.), (2009). Zovnishnya trudova mihratsiya naselennya Ukrayiny [External labor migration of the population of Ukraine]. DP “Informatsiyno-analitychne ahentstvo”, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).

Kacharaba, S. P. (2003). Emihratsiya z Zakhidnoyi Ukrayiny [Emigration from Western Ukraine in 1919–1939]. Lviv: Lviv University Press (in Ukrainian).

Kacharaba, S., & Rozhyk, M. (1995). Ukrayins’ka emihratsiya. Emihratsiynyy rukh zi Skhidnoyi Halychyny ta Pivnichnoyi Bukovyny u 1890-1914 rr. [Ukrainian emigration. Emigration movement from Eastern Halychyna and Northern Bukovyna in 1890-1914]. Lviv: AT “Rivnens’ka drukarnya” (in Ukrainian).

Krupnyts’kyy, L. (2008, March 24). Lyshe 2% ukrayintsiv pratsyuyut’ za kordonom lehal’no [Only 2% of Ukrainians work abroad legally]. BBC News. Retrieved from: www.bbc.co.uk/ukrainian (in Ukrainian).

Malynovs’ka, O. (2005). Trudova mihratsiya z Ukrayiny: za danymy doslidzhen’ 1994 i 2002 rr. u m. Kyyevi, m. Chernivtsi ta s. Prylbychi Yavorivs’koho rayonu L’vivs’koyi oblasti [Labor migration from Ukraine: according to the research data of 1994 and 2002 in Kyiv, Chernivtsi and vil. Privlichi of Yavoriv district of Lviv region]. In Markov, I. (ed.), Ukrayins’ka trudova mihratsiya u konteksti zmin suchasnoho svitu [Ukrainian labor migration in the context of changes in the modern world]. Lviv: Manuskrypt. 110-125 (in Ukrainian).

Molodikova, I. N. (red.), 2005. Migracija naselenija v kontekste social’nyh nauk [Migration of the population in the context of social sciences]. Smolensk: Madzhenta (in Russian).

Iglicka, K. (ed.), 2003. Mihratsiya i rynky pratsi Pol’shchi y Ukrayini [Migration and labor markets of Poland and Ukraine]. Warszawa: Instytut Spraw Publicznych (in Ukrainian).

Prybytkova, I. (2003). Trudovi mihranty u sotsial’niy iyerarkhiyi ukrayins’koho suspil’stva: statusni pozytsiyi, tsinnosti, zhyttyevi stratehiyi, styl’ i sposib zhyttya [Migrant Workers in the Social Hierarchy of Ukrainian Society: Status Positions, Values, Life Strategies, Style and Lifestyle]. Sociology: Theory, Methods, Marketing, (1), 109-124 (in Ukrainian).

Rovenchak, O. (2006). Vyvchennya ta klasyfikatsiya migratsiy u naukoviy literaturi z sotsiohumanitarnykh nauk yak sproba nablyzhennya do operatsionalizatsiyi ponyat’ [Study and classification of migrations in scientific literature on social sciences and humanities as an attempt to approach the operationalization of concepts]. Politychnyy menedzhment, (2), 127-139 (in Ukrainian).

Ukrainian World Congress (2017). Retrieved from: http://www.ukrainianworldcongress.org.

Picha, V. M. (ed.), 2002. Sotsiolohiya: terminy, ponyattya, personaliyi. Navchal’nyy slovnyk–dovidnyk [Sociology: terms, notions, personalities. Educational Dictionary-Directory]. Kyiv: Karavela; Lviv: Novyy svit-2000 (in Ukrainian).

Tyndyk, N. P. (2009). Trudova mihratsiya v epokhu hlobalizatsiyi: intehratsiya u svit chy vtecha vid bidnosti [Labor Migration in the Age of Globalization: Integration into the World or Escape from Poverty]. Lviv: Lviv State University of Internal Affairs (in Ukrainian).

Fedyuk, V. Yu. (2012). Ukrayins’kyy etnos v umovakh mihratsiynykh protsesiv suchasnoyi tsyvilizatsiyi [Ukrainian ethnos in the conditions of migration processes of modern civilization]. Filosofiya. Kul’tura. Zhyttya, (38), 61-75 (in Ukrainian).

Khymovych, O. (2008). Emihratsiyna aktyvnist’ zhinochoho naselennya v Ukrayini [Ukrainian women emigration activity]. Visnyk of the Lviv University. Series Sociology, (2), 363-367 (in Ukrainian).

Chekhovych, S. B. (2003). Mihratsiyne pravo Ukrayiny [Migration law of Ukraine]. Shkola, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).

Shul’ga, N. (2002). Velikoe pereselenie: repatrianty, bezhency, trudovye migranty [Great resettlement: repatriates, refugees, labor migrants]. Kiev: Institute of Sociology, NAS Ukraine (in Russian).

Castles, S. (2000). Ethnicity and Globalization. From Migrant Worker to Transnational Citizen. London – Thosand Oaks – New Delhi: SAGE Publications.

Huntington, S. P. (2004). Who Are We? The Challenges to America’s National Identity. New York – London – Toronto – Sydney: Simon & Shuster Paperbacks.

Korczyńska, J. (2003). Sezonowe wyjazdy zarobkowe Polaków do Niemiec / [Seasonal earning trips of Poles to Germany]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar (in Polish).

Salazar Parreñas, R. (2001). Servants of globalization. Women, migration and domestic work. California: Stanford University Press.

Salazar Parreñas, R. (2005). Children of global migration. Transnational families and gendered woes. California: Stanford University Press.

Szczepaniková, А. (2006, March 28). Migration as gendered and gendering process: A brief overview of the state of art and suggestions for future directions in migration research. Retrieved from: http://www.migrationonline.cz/e-library/?x=1963604.

Castles, S., Miller, M. J., & Ammendola, G. (2005). The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. American Foreign Policy Interests: The Journal of the National Committee on American Foreign Policy, 27(6), 537-542.

Tegeler, V., & Cherkez, O. (eds.), (2011). Ukrainian Labour Migration Processes in Russia: Social and Gender Aspects, Materials of Comprehensive Sociological Study. Odessa: “Elton” Ltd.

Weiss, T. L. (ed.), (2003). World Migration 2003: Managing Migration Challenges and Responses for People on the Move. Geneva: IOM.

Published
2017-11-16
How to Cite
KhymovychО. S. (2017). Historical and theoretical foundations for the study and diachronic dimension of labour migration. Scientific and Theoretical Almanac Grani, 20(11), 91-99. https://doi.org/10.15421/1717152
Section
Article