Historical and theoretical foundations for the study and diachronic dimension of labour migration
AbstractThe article focuses on the analysis of migration processes in the diachronic measurement and to determine the basic theoretical principles. In particular, main waves of labour migration are studied, their temporal scopes are outlined. Basic tendencies of the considered last-wave subperiods are analysed. The research is based on the impressive number of theoretical and methodological works related to the subject. The analysis of these works accomplished by Ukrainian and foreign scientists has revealed that the phenomenon of labour migration from Ukraine is of complicated nature and is not reduced to purely economic reasons. Because today, people migrate not only to meet physiological or other material needs, but also to meet their social needs. Also, life in another country became the norm for them, and the new cultural environment created a new social reality.It should be emphasized that the fourth wave of Ukrainian migration has a qualitatively different character compared to the first three. The main reasons for this migration wave, due to relevant studies, are economic ones, since economic factor was dominant for the labour migrants’ motivations. Also, transformation of family values and roles is observed during that period. On the basis of the studied scientific literature, as well as on the author’s own research, the main subperiods of the fourth wave of labour migration, referred to generally as economic migration, are identified.The main concepts of migration are also considered, and the categories of labour migrants are analysed. Moreover, author’s personal approach to the concepts of «migration» and «labour migrant» is introduced. Based on the analyzed material defined the gender features of modern labor migration, in particular, the main directions of migration, conditions of living abroad, the sphere of employment and the level of remuneration, are determined.In current research, qualitative methods are applied, in particular, semi-structured interviews with labour migrants, which, combined with quantitative methods, allow to more deeply analyse the stages of labour migration among the residents of Lviv region. For empirical research, we used the author’s methodology for studying migratory processes among contemporary Ukrainian labor migrants, which was formed by combining qualitative (covering more than 40 interviews with labour migrants) and quantitative components.
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