Technologies of legitimation in international relations
AbstractAn important condition for the exercise of power on the world arena is the legitimacy, which may be understood as significance, validity, or compulsory obedience of the subjects of international relations to certain principles, rules, norms, policies, decisions, appeals, and arguments. Meanwhile, all these imperatives are the embodiment of the will of the dominant international actors. This suggests that legitimacy is an important component of global governance, the stabilization of the global order, the global sustainable development. The main objective of the study is to reveal the possibility legitimacy management on the world arena through research the legitimation technologies of as effective tools of the international relations regulation. Methodological basis of research is the technological approach, which allowed to consider the practice of social and political actors as instruments to achieve goals with maximum economy of effort and cost, with the implementation of the powerful tasks for a lower price. The study of the legitimation technologies problem in international dimension has led to fruitful results. The author found that legitimacy is inherently technological, since it is a resource that allows to reduce the cost of the exercise of power. Legitimacy is the importance of all social relations (including political power ones) that defines their recognition and effectiveness. Legitimization makes things and relationships positively or negatively significant. The author argues that the main purpose of the legtimation technologies is to form meaning of relationships, power, institutions, rules, principles, decisions, and symbols. He defines technologies of legitimation in international relations as procedures, techniques, methods and processes aimed to optimal and efficient implementation of the goals and objectives of the actor of international activities to the acquisition, strengthening and expanding its power in the international arena. The author substantiates the idea that the most effective and promising in the global world is an alliance associate legitimation technologies. They are implemented through the mechanism of initiation of the alliance relations and of multilateral structures in various spheres of life of the international community in response to existing or perceived threats. Such technologies and the results of its use is a solid foundation for the successful implementation of any other legtimate tools on the world arena. At the same time, the hybrid legitimation technologies used by Russia in international relations, is fundamentally futile, since ones do not rely on dynamic controlled universality - nor ideological, nor value, nor practical, neither in prognostic visions of the future.
Brzezinski, Z. (1997). The grand chessboard: American primacy and its geostrategic imperatives. Basic Books, NY.
Coleman, K. P. (2007). International Organisations and Peace Enforcement: The Politics of International Legitimacy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ellul, J. (1980). The Technological System. Trans. from the French by J.Neugroschel. New York: The Continuum Publishing Corporation.
Franck, Th. M. (1990). The power of legitimacy among nations. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ham van, P. (2005). Power, Public Diplomacy, and the Pax Americana. The new public diplomacy: soft power in international relations / ed. J.Melissen., рр. 47-66. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Jackson, R. J. & Towle, Ph. (2006). Temptations of power: the United States in global politics after 9/11. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Jayasuriya, K. (2005). Reconstituting the Global Liberal Order: Legitimacy and Regulation. New York; London: Routledge.
Mackiewicz W. W. (2008). Winning the war of words: selling the war on terror from Afghanistan to Iraq. London: Praeger Security International, Westport, Connecticut.
Melissen, J. (2005). The New Public Diplomacy: Between Theory and Practice. The new public diplomacy: soft power in international relations / ed. J.Melissen, pp. 3–27. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Nye, J. S. (2005). Power in the global information age: from realism to globalization. New York; London: Routledge.
Nye, J. S. (2008). The powers to lead. New York: Oxford University Press.
Staden, van A. (2007). Between the Rule of Power and the Power of Rule: In Search of an Effective World Order. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
The Independent International Commission on Kosovo (2000). The Kosovo Report: Conflict, International Response, Lessons Learned. New York: Oxford University Press.
Westergren, M. (2016). The Political Legitimacy of Global Governance Institutions: A Justice–Based Account. Stockholm: University.
Zakaria, F. (2008). The post–American world. New York; London: W. W. Norton & Company