Political institutions: a generalization of the content of approaches to the definition of the concept
AbstractIn the scientific article, the approaches to understanding the political institution are generalized. A historical analysis of the development of the stages of research on political institutions is conducted, namely, «old» institutionalism and «new» institutionalism. The concept of «institution», its structure and functions was analyzed, and the distinction between the concepts «institution» and «organization» was established. During the research, several approaches to understanding the political institution were analyzed. The first approach defines the political institution as the rules of the game that were created by society, the main purpose of such institutions is to regulate the relationships between individuals in society, as well as individuals and the government. The second approach determines the institutions of the organization, which have a structure, operate within the framework of formal laws. The role of political institutions in shaping the political order of the state is determined. It was established that political institutions, firstly, help in the settlement of conflicts and problems in the state, and secondly, they help in achieving the goals of the state. The conditions for the formation and modernization of political institutions, as well as the role of society in these processes, are determined. Analysis of the types of political institutions allowed establishing the main institutions on which the functioning of a democratic state depends. It is also established that such political institutions should have a hierarchical structure with a division of powers. These institutions must be formal, that is, be legal. In the process of research, it was certain that political institutions, for their development, should have, first and foremost, the support of society. The level of development of political institutions is determined by the level of institutionalization, which can be determined by adaptability, complexity, autonomy, internal generalization of political institutions. The activities of political institutions should reflect public interests, that is, political institutions should ensure the development of all spheres of society. The study allowed the author to conclude that the study of political institutions on the basis of only one scientific approach will not allow explaining the current political processes in the state. Identifying these scientific approaches, one can conclude that political institutions are a set of social relations in the political sphere that are regulated by formal and non-formal rules and have an organizational structure.
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